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Table 1 Randomized controlled trials of bundled goal-directed therapy

From: Conservative fluid therapy in septic shock: an example of targeted therapeutic minimization

Study and country Sign score Goal-directed therapy (goals)   Time and fluid quantification (L)
     Control GDT
Rivers et al. 2001, USA [2] + 500 ml crystalloid bolus every 30 minutes (CVP 8–12 mmHg) 6 h: 3.5 ± 2.4 5.0 ± 3.0
7–72 h: 10.6 ± 6.2 8.6 ± 5.2
Lin et al. 2006, Taiwan [23] + 500 ml crystalloid bolus every 30 minutes (CVP 8–12 mmHg) Total: 5.0 ± 2.9 5.2 ± 4.0
GDT Collaborative Group of Zhejiang Province 2010, China [22] - 500 ml crystalloid bolus every 30 minutes (CVP 8–12 mmHg)   Quantified but not reported  
ProCESS 2014, USA [24] ++ 500 ml crystalloid bolus every 30 minutes (CVP 8–12 mmHg) 6 h: 2.3 ± 1.9 2.8 ± 2.0
  1. Double plus signs (++) indicate studies with very unlikely bias, a single plus sign (+) indicates studies with unlikely bias, and a minus sign (−) indicates studies with high risk of bias. CVP, central venous pressure; GDT, goal-directed therapy.