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Table 2 Secondary outcomes

From: Citrate anticoagulation versus systemic heparinisation in continuous venovenous hemofiltration in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: a multi-center randomized clinical trial

  Citrate (n = 66) Heparin (n = 73) P-value
Safety, discontinuation of study anticoagulant
Within 72 h 2 (3) 9 (12) 0.06
Bleeding episode 0 2 (22)  
HIT 0 2 (22)  
Frequent filter failure 0 3 (33)  
Citrate accumulation 2 (100) 0  
Miscellaneous 0 2 (22)  
Within 28 days 5 (8) 24 (33) <0.001
Bleeding episode 0 8 (33)  
HIT 0 6 (25)  
Frequent filter failure 0 7 (29)  
Citrate accumulation 4 (80) 0  
Miscellaneous 1 (20) 3 (13)  
Bleeding episode within 28 days 3 (5) 10 (14) 0.08
Requirement of >2 packed cells 2 (3) 4 (6) 0.68
Metabolic derangements, during first 72 hours of therapy
pH >7.50 1 (2) 0 1.00
Sodium >150 mmol/L 4 (7) 3 (5) 0.71
Magnesium <0.7 mmol/L 8 (15) 6 (9) 0.40
Efficacy, intention to treat
Survival time first filter, h 46 (1 to 138) 32 (1 to 72) 0.02
Number of filters used within 72 h 1 (1 to 5) 2 (1 to 9) 0.002
Off-time within 72 h, h 1 (0 to 12) 3 (0 to 31) 0.002
Reason for circuit disconnection    0.01
Circuit clotting 16 (24) 35 (51)  
Elective filter change (72 h) 20 (30) 6 (9)  
Catheter dysfunction 4 (6) 8 (12)  
Termination of CVVH1 10 (15) 10 (12)  
Transport 4 (6) 1 (1)  
Technical problems 8 (12) 5 (7)  
Therapy change2 2 (3) 3 (4)  
Miscellaneous 2 (3) 1 (1)  
Total duration of CVVH, h 123 (4 to 999) 73 (5 to 672) 0.18
Efficacy, per protocol n = 61 n = 49  
Number of filters used within 72 h 1 (1 to 5) 2 (1 to 9) 0.04
Off-time within 72 h, h 2 (0 to 12 ) 0 (0 to 31) 0.01
Total duration of CVVH, h 117 (4 to 999) 70 (5 to 672) 0.04
Costs
Total cost of first 72 h of CVVH 553 (436 to 872) 663 (320 to 1,319) <0.001
Replacement fluid 316 (225 to 366) 429 (119 to 736) <0.001
Wage nursing staff for filter change 19 (19 to 95) 38 (19 to 171) 0.02
Filter sets 85 (85 to 425) 170 (85 to 765) 0.02
Heparin 0 6.46 (3.84 to 6.74) <0.001
Calcium glubionate 82 (70 to 84) 0 <0.001
  1. Median (range) or number (percentage), where appropriate. HIT, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia; CVVH, continuous venovenous haemofiltration; € = euro. 1Treatment withdrawal or renal function recovery.
  2. 2Continuous renal replacement therapy to intermittent renal replacement therapy.