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Table 3 Availability of equipment to implement the surviving sepsis campaign guidelines

From: Availability of critical care resources to treat patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in Africa: a self-reported, continent-wide survey of anaesthesia providers

  African countries
N= 263
High-income countries
N= 44
P-value
  Always Some-times Never Don't know Always Some-times Never Don't know  
Diagnostic equipment          
X-ray 236 (90.8) 14 (5.4) 10 (3.8) 0 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.11
Sonography 216 (83.4) 17 (6.6) 25 (9.7) 1 (0.4) 43 (97.7) 1 (2.3) 0 0 0.04*
Echocardiography 152 (60.6) 30 (12) 61 (24.3) 8 (3.2) 40 (90.9) 4 (9.1) 0 0 <0.001*
Laboratory investigations          
Thick drop 251 (96.5) 4 (1.5) 3 (1.2) 2 (0.8) 35 (79.5) 3 (6.8) 5 (11.4) 1 (2.3) <0.001*
Gram stain 238 (92.2) 18 (7) 2 (0.8) 0 43 (97.7) 1 (2.3) 0 0 0.41
Microbiological cultures 193 (75.1) 44 (17.1) 19 (7.4) 1 (0.4) 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.001*
Antibiogram 181 (70.4) 51 (19.8) 21 (8.2) 4 (1.6) 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
Blood sugar 242 (93.1) 17 (6.5) 1 (0.4) 0 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.2
Blood gas analysis 110 (43.5) 48 (19) 89 (35.2) 6 (2.4) 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
Lactate 64 (25.7) 60 (24.1) 92 (36.9) 33 (13.3) 43 (97.7) 1 (2.3) 0 0 <0.001*
Blood count 227 (87.6) 27 (10.4) 4 (1.5) 1 (0.4) 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.05
Creatinine 201 (78.2) 40 (15.6) 15 (5.8) 1 (0.4) 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.003*
Bilirubin 194 (74.6) 46 (17.7) 18 (6.9) 2 (0.8) 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.001*
Prothrombin time/INR 176 (68.5) 39 (15.2) 36 (14) 6 (2.3) 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
Other coagulation tests 149 (60.1) 59 (23.8) 29 (11.7) 11 (4.4) 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
Monitoring equipment          
Body temperature 205 (79.2) 50 (19.3) 2 (0.8) 2 (0.8) 42 (95.5) 2 (4.5) 0 0 0.04*
Non-invasive blood pressure 241 (93.8) 11 (4.3) 5 (1.9) 0 43 (97.7) 1 (2.3) 0 0 0.52
Invasive blood pressure 58 (23.1) 84 (33.5) 102 (40.6) 7 (2.8) 41 (93.2) 3 (6.8) 0 0 <0.001*
Oxygen saturation 199 (76.8) 42 (16.2) 18 (6.9) 0 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
Central venous pressure 87 (33.9) 78 (30.4) 90 (35) 2 (0.8) 41 (93.2) 3 (6.8) 0 0 <0.001*
Cardiac output 30 (12) 62 (24.8) 146 (58.4) 12 (4.8) 37 (84.1) 5 (11.4) 2 (4.5) 0 <0.001*
Pulmonary arterial pressure 22 (8.6) 45 (17.6) 174 (68) 15 (5.9) 34 (77.3) 8 (18.2) 2 (4.5) 0 <0.001*
Endtidal carbon dioxyde 99 (38.2) 78 (30.1) 78 (30.1) 4 (1.5) 43 (97.7) 1 (2.3) 0 0 <0.001*
Other equipment          
Mechanical ventilator 184 (71.9) 38 (14.8) 34 (13.3) 34 (13.3) 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
Syringe pump 138 (53.9) 53 (20.7) 61 (23.8) 4 (1.6) 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
Fluid infuser 126 (49) 61 (23.7) 67 (26.1) 3 (1.2) 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
Peritoneal dialysis 91 (36) 50 (19.8) 98 (38.7) 14 (5.5) 38 (86.4) 3 (6.8) 1 (2.3) 2 (4.5) <0.001*
Hemodialysis/Hemofiltration 111 (43.2) 26 (10.1) 110 (42.8) 10 (3.9) 43 (97.7) 1 (2.3) 0 0 <0.001*
  1. *, significant group difference ('don't know' choices were not included in statistical comparisons); INR, international normalized ratio; All data are given as absolute values and percentages of completed responses.