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Table 2 Availability of drugs to implement the surviving sepsis campaign guidelines

From: Availability of critical care resources to treat patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in Africa: a self-reported, continent-wide survey of anaesthesia providers

  African countries
N= 263
High-income countries
N= 44
P-value
  Always Some-times Never Don't know Always Some-times Never Don't know  
Oxygen 243 (93.8) 15 (5.8) 1 (0.4) 0 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.24
Antibiotics          
Ampicilline 201 (78.5) 47 (18.4) 5 (2) 3 (1.2) 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.004*
Gentamycine 243 (92.4) 19 (7.2) 0 1 (0.4) 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.07
3 rd /4 th Gen Cephalosporine 203 (77.5) 57 (21.8) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.4) 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.002*
Piperacilline 65 (26.4) 40 (16.3) 83 (33.7) 58 (23.6) 43 (97.7) 0 0 1 (2.3) <0.001*
Carbapenem 79 (32.1) 46 (18.7) 68 (27.6) 53 (21.5) 43 (97.7) 0 0 1 (2.3) <0.001*
IV fluids          
Crystalloids 254 (96.6) 9 (3.4) 0 0 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.21
Colloids 158 (60.8) 81 (31.2) 16 (6.2) 5 (1.9) 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
Blood products          
Red blood cells 206 (79.5) 51 (19.7) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.4) 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.005*
Fresh frozen plasma 109 (42.6) 81 (31.6) 59 (23) 7 (2.7) 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
Platelets 69 (27.2) 93 (36.6) 79 (31.1) 13 (5.1) 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
Cardiovascular drugs          
Noradrenaline 119 (46.7) 60 (23.5) 67 (26.3) 9 (3.5) 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
Dopamine 133 (51.4) 68 (26.3) 52 (20.1) 6 (2.3) 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
Dobutamine 94 (37.2) 67 (26.5) 77 (30.4) 15 (5.9) 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
Adrenaline 255 (97.3) 7 (2.7) 0 0 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.27
Hydrocortisone 252 (96.2) 9 (3.4) 0 1 (0.4) 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.21
Vasopressin 76 (29.8) 66 (25.9) 93 (36.5) 20 (7.8) 43 (97.7) 0 0 1 (2.3) <0.001*
Anesthetic/sedative drugs          
Thiopentone 243 (93.1) 11 (4.2) 7 (2.7) 0 43 (97.7) 1 (2.3) 0 0 0.44
Propofol 154 (59) 71 (27.2) 36 (13.8) 0 43 (97.7) 1 (2.3) 0 0 <0.001*
Succinylcholine 242 (93.4) 9 (3.5) 7 (2.7) 1 (0.4) 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.24
ND Muscle Relaxant 185 (70.6) 59 (22.5) 18 (6.9) 0 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
IV opiate/opioide 208 (79.7) 50 (19.2) 3 (1.1) 0 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.004*
Diazepam 251 (95.8) 11 (4.2) 0 0 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.17
Midazolam 138 (52.9) 72 (27.6) 48 (18.4) 3 (1.1) 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
Others          
Insulin 232 (89.2) 27 (10.4) 1 (0.4) 0 44 (100) 0 0 0 0.07
Heparin or LMWH 174 (67.7) 56 (21.8) 21 (8.2) 6 (2.3) 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
H2-Blockers 182 (70.3) 64 (24.7) 9 (3.5) 4 (1.5) 44 (100) 0 0 0 <0.001*
Proton pump inhibitor 145 (55.1) 82 (31.2) 18 (7.1) 10 (3.9) 42 (95.5) 0 0 2 (4.5) <0.001*
Activated protein C 15 (6.1) 32 (13) 139 (56.3) 61 (24.7) 39 (88.6) 1 (2.3) 2 (4.5) 2 (4.5) <0.001*
  1. *, significant group difference ('don't know' choices were not included in statistical comparisons); H2, histamine receptor 2; IV, intravenous; LMWH, low molecular weight heparin; ND, non-depolarizing.
  2. All data are given as absolute values and percentages of completed responses.