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Table 1 Demographic, co-morbidities and clinical characteristics of the patients

From: Clinical aspects and cytokine response in severe H1N1 influenza A virus infection

Characteristics of patients All patients with nvA(H1N1) infection (n= 32) nvA(H1N1)-ARDS group (n= 21) nvA(H1N1)-mild disease group (n= 11) P valuea ARDS bacterial sepsis group (n= 20) P valueb
Age (years) 37 (30.7 to 52) 42 (33.5 to 55.5) 33 (18 to 35) 0.009 57 (38.5 to 66) 0.12
Sex ratio (male/female) 16/16 9/12 7/4 0.4 8/12 1
Underlying disease       
   Cardiovascular disease 8 (25%) 6/21 2/11 0.6 8/20 0.5
   Asthma/COPD 10 (31.25%) 8/21 2/11 0.4 12/20 0.2
   Obesity (BMI > 30) 13 (40.6%) 12/21 1/11 0.01 3/20 0.01
   Type 1 or 2 diabetes 2 (6.3%) 2/21 0   1/20 1
   Esquizophrenia 3 (9.3%) 3/21 0   0  
   Cancer 3 (9.3%) 1/21 2/11 0.2 6/20 0.044
Pregnancy 3 (9.3%) 3/21 0   0  
Interval between symptom onset and hospital admission (days) 4.5 (2 to 7) 6 (3.5 to 8.5) 2 (2 to 3) 0.001 2 (0 to 3) 0.01
Presenting symptoms       
   Fever > 38°C 28 (87.5%) 18/21 10/11 1 18/20 1
   Cough 32 (100%) 21/21 11/11   2/20  
   Dyspnea 25 (78%) 21/21 4/11   20/20  
   Myalgia 24 (75%) 14/21 10/11 0.2 0  
SOFA score   6.1 (± 3.29)    7.2 (± 4.2) 0.5
APACHE II score 12.6 (± 6.62) 15.14 (± 6.36)    16.3 (± 6.03) 0.5
Respiratory condition       
   SaO2 < 94% 23 (71.8%) 21/21 2/11   20/20  
   PaO2:FiO2 ratio   1.96 (± 0.83) NA   1.72 (± 0.68) 0.28
   Mechanical ventilation 11 (34.3%) 11/21 0   12/20 0.7
   Non-invasive ventilation 10 (31.3%) 10/21 0   8/20 0.7
Initial chest X-ray scan       
   Extensive bilateral multilobar infiltrates 21 (65.6%) 21/21 0   20/20  
Complications       
   Secondary bacterial pneumonia 3 (9.4%) 2/21 1/11   4/20 0.4
   Pneumothorax 3 (9.4%) 3/21 0   2/20 1
   Encephalitis 1 (3.1%) 1/21 0   0  
   Acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy 4 (12.5%) 4/21 0   3/20 1
Length of hospital stay (days) 10 (7 to 12.7) 11 (10 to 14) 6 (6 to 9) < 0.001 18 (13 to 41) 0.005
ICU length of stay (days) 4.5 (1 to 7.5) 7 (5 to 9) 0   16.5 (1 to 33) 0.3
In-hospital death 7 (21.8%) 7/21 0   3/20 0.2
  1. Data presented as median (interquartile range), number (%) of patients, or mean (± standard deviation), unless otherwise indicated. APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; BMI, body mass index; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ICU, intensive care unit; NA, not applicable; nvA(H1N1), novel A(H1N1) virus; PaO2/FiO2, pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fraction of inspired oxygen; SOFA, Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment.
  2. a differences in baseline characteristics between nvA(H1N1)-ARDS and nvA(H1N1)-mild disease (the Fisher exact test was used for categorical variables and Mann Whitney test for continuous variables)
  3. b differences in baseline characteristics between nvA(H1N1)-ARDS and bacterial sepsis-ARDS (the Fisher exact test was used for categorical variables and Mann Whitney test for continuous variables)