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Table 4 Baseline characteristics and 1-month outcomes of patients whose arrests witnessed by EMS providers

From: Collaborative effects of bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation and prehospital advanced cardiac life support by physicians on survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a nationwide population-based observational study

  All (n= 23,127) ACLS by ELSTs (n= 22,131) ACLS by physicians (n= 996)
  n % n % n %
Sex (males) 14,434 62.4 13,797 62.3 637 64.0
Age (years) 69.6 ± 18.0   69.8 ± 17.9   65.2 ± 20.0  
Causes of arrest       
   Cardiac origin 12,024 52.0 11,503 52.0 521 52.3
   Noncardiac origin 11,103 48.0 10,628 48.0 475 47.7
Initial rhythm       
   Ventricular fibrillation 1,918 8.3 1,818 8.2 100 10.0
   Pulseless electrical activity 8,424 36.4 8,092 36.6 332 33.3
   Asystole 4,471 19.3 4,325 19.5 146 14.7
   Others 8,314 35.9 7,896 35.7 418 42.0
Call to EMS response (minutes) 6.9 ± 4.3   6.9 ± 4.2   6.9 ± 5.3  
Outcomes       
   1-month survival 2,642 11.4 2,493 11.3 149 15.0
   CPC at 1 month       
Good performance 1,325 5.7 1,235 5.6 90 9.0
Moderate disability 234 1.0 223 1.0 11 1.1
Severe cerebral disability 312 1.3 295 1.3 17 1.7
Vegetative status or worse 765 3.3 734 3.3 31 3.1
  1. Data presented as n or mean ± standard deviation. ACLS, advanced cardiac life support; CPC, cerebral performance category; ELST, emergency life-saving technician; EMS, emergency medical service.