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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients whose arrests were witnessed by bystanders

From: Collaborative effects of bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation and prehospital advanced cardiac life support by physicians on survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a nationwide population-based observational study

  All (n= 95,072) Group A (n= 53,482) Group B (n= 38,077) Group C (n= 1,597) Group D (n= 1,916)
  n % n % n % n % n %
Sex (males) 58,745 61.8 34,297 64.1 22,210 58.3 1,058 66.2 1,180 61.6
Age (years) 71.6 ± 17.8 (75)   70.9 ± 17.4 (75)   72.9 ± 18.1 (77)   65.9 ± 20.1 (71)   69.2 ± 18.8 (73)  
Causes of arrest           
   Cardiac origin 52,830 55.6 28,825 53.9 21,967 57.7 835 52.3 1,203 62.8
   Noncardiac origin 42,242 44.4 24,657 46.1 16,110 42.3 762 47.7 713 37.2
Initial rhythm           
   Ventricular fibrillation 13,705 14.4 6,744 12.6 6,292 16.5 245 15.3 424 22.1
   Pulseless electrical activity 31,141 32.8 18,580 34.7 11,361 29.8 573 35.9 627 32.7
   Asystole 47,328 49.8 27,129 50.7 18,724 49.2 712 44.6 763 39.8
   Others 2,898 3.0 1,029 1.9 1,700 4.5 67 4.2 102 5.3
Collapse to initiation of CPR (minutes) 8.9 ± 10.0 (7.0)   12.5 ± 10.2 (10.0)   4.1 ± 7.2 (2.0)   13.0 ± 11.6 (10.0)   3.0 ± 6.1 (2.0)  
Collapse to EMS response (minutes) 11.3 ± 9.7 (9.0)   10.9 ± 9.9 (9.0)   11.7 ± 9.7 (10.0)   11.0 ± 10.8 (8.0)   12.4 ± 11.6 (9.0)  
Collapse to first shocka (minutes) 13.1 ± 6.2 (12.0)   12.8 ± 6.4 (12.0)   13.4 ± 6.0 (12.0)   12.4 ± 6.2 (11.0)   13.1 ± 6.4 (12.0)  
Call to EMS response (minutes) 7.3 ± 4.5 (6.0)   7.0 ± 4.4 (6.0)   7.7 ± 4.5 (7.0)   7.2 ± 5.5 (6.0)   7.2 ± 4.2 (6.0)  
  1. Data presented as n or mean ± standard deviation (median). Group A, advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) by emergency life-saving technicians (ELSTs) without bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR); Group B, ACLS by ELSTs with BCPR; Group C, ACLS by physicians without BCPR; Group D, ACLS by physicians with BCPR. CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; EMS, emergency medical service. aThe mean time from collapse to first shock was only calculated in patients who received a shock.