Impact from PCR testing. Diagrams for estimating impact from PCR testing in sepsis, based on incidence of modification of initial antimicrobial treatment (x-axis) and share of episodes with positive blood culture (curves): A: Cost-neutral application of PCR is predicted if the mean daily treatment cost of those included in PCR testing exceeds the break-even value on the y-axis (A). Data point from our study: 717 €, at 20% BC+ (Table 2) and 33.5% modification of empiric treatment (= 74/221, Figure 1). B: Cost per incremental survivor is predicted as indicated on the y-axis (B). Data point from our study: 11,477 €, at 20% BC+ and 33.5% modification of empiric treatment. Figure 2 was calculated using equation 4 (A) and equation 5 (B) with substitution terms as given in Additional data file 2.