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Table 3 Summary of growth factors in Malawian children with sepsis

From: The role of angiogenic factors in predicting clinical outcome in severe bacterial infection in Malawian children

Geometric mean (25%-75% centile)
P values: univariable (multivariablea)
VEGF pg/ml PDGF pg/ml FGF pg/ml Ang1 1,000 pg/ml Ang2 1,000 pg/ml
Cases (n = 293) 90 (53-166) 956 (548-1884) 204 (119-376) 5.54 (2.6-9.7) 8.5 (5.2-13.6)
Controls (n = 15) 11 (4,15)
P < 0.001
402 (195-721)
P = 0.04
34 (20-48)
P < 0.001
6.84 (2.2-20.1)
P = 0.58
2.4 (1.6-4.6)
P < 0.001
NBI (n = 77) 77 (49-133) 1,069.4 (702-2,309) 210 (141-342) 8.4 (3.9-16.8) 5.3 (3.1-7.6)
SBI (n = 216) 96 (56-171)
P = 0.06 (0.02)
918 (521-1,779)
P = 0.27 (0.71)
202 (107-89)
P = 0.75 (0.74)
4.7 (2.4-8.7)
P < 0.001 (0.01)
10.0 (5.8-16.1)
P < 0.001 (0.002)
Gram-positive infection (n = 182) 102 (59-181) 978 (574-1,817) 215 (118-404) 4.8 (2.5-8.9) 10.4 (6.1-16.8)
Gram-negative infection (n = 33) 63 (40-96)
P = 0.004 (0.01)
643 (286-1,616)
P = 0.03 (0.03)
134 (84-278)
P = 0.007 (0.004)
4.2 (1.8-8.6)
P = 0.41 (0.54)
9.1 (5.7-14.2)
P = 0.23 (0.61)
Pneumonia (n = 211) 88 (54-155) 900 (528-1,756) 193 (116-356) 5.1 (2.5-9.6) 9.0 (5.3-15.8)
Meningitis (n = 82) 97 (51-200)
P = 0.38 (0.19)
1114 (676-2,378)
P = 0.11 (0.49)
239 (131-404)
P = 0.06 (0.15)
6.9 (3.7-14.6)
P = 0.10 (0.63)
7.0 (5.2-8.7)
P = 0.01 (0.52)
HIV negative (n = 138) 84 (53-145) 937 (547-1,720) 201 (117-377) 5.4 (2.7-9.7) 6.4 (3.9-9.2)
HIV positive (n = 154) 96 (53-177)
P = 0.17 (0.45)
967 (569-2,035)
P = 0.79 (0.95)
208 (123-375)
P = 0.71 (0.70)
5.7 (2.5-10.0)
P = 0.91 (0.72)
10.9 (6.2-16.8)
P < 0.001 (<0.001)
Survivors (n = 229) 93 (42-142) 1,051 (361-1,261) 214 (115-314) 6.0 (2.8-10.2) 7.7 (5.0-12.6)
Nonsurvivors (n = 64) 81 (54-176)
P = 0.27(0.19)
682 (612-2,035)
P = 0.003 (0.007)
171 (119-385)
P = 0.07 (0.10)
3.9 (2.3-7.4)
P = 0.03 (0.03)
11.9(6.7-21.7)
P = 0.001 (0.02)
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (n = 180) 101 (58-181) 978 (593-1,818) 215 (119-397) 4.8 (2.5-8.7) 10.4 (6.1-16.8)
SBI, other than IPD (n = 35) 68 (41-115)
P = 0.01
671 (292-1,611)
P = 0.04
146 (86-308)
P = 0.02
4.6 (2.0-9.1)
P = 0.32
8.3 (5.6-13.0)
P = 0.16
  1. aMultivariable analyses included NBI/SBI, diagnosis(pneumonia/meningitis), HIV status, survival status and gram-positive/-negative type. (IPD/SBI, other than IPD was not included in the model because of strong association with gram-positive/negative status. All except two of gram-positive infections were IPD).