Skip to main content

Table 2 Clinical characteristics and cystatin C concentrations on admission to the ICU, and 30-day outcomes for surviving and dying cohorts with and without both sepsis and AKI

From: Urinary cystatin C is diagnostic of acute kidney injury and sepsis, and predicts mortality in the intensive care unit

  Dead within 30 d
(n = 64)
Alive at 30 d
(n = 380)
P Sepsis and AKI
(n = 30)
Not sepsis
and not AKI
(n = 268)
P
Age, years 64 ± 17 58 ± 18 0.16 58 ± 18 59 ± 18 0.76
Female 31 (48%) 141 (37%) 0.09 12 (40%) 101 (38%) 0.81
Baseline pCr, mmol/L 0.08
(0.06-0.10)
0.08
(0.06-0.09)
0.13 0.07
(0.06-0.09)
0.08
(0.06-0.09)
0.32
Total APACHE II score 22 ± 6.9 17 ± 5.9 <0.0001 18.5 ± 7.1 17.1 ± 6.3 0.25
Heart Rate APACHE IIa
<70 or >109 beats/minute
54 (84%) 272 (72%) 0.32 24 (80%) 196 (73%) 0.42
Respiratory rate APACHE IIa
<12 or >24 breaths/minute
23 (36%) 184 (48%) 0.06 16 (53%) 124 (46%) 0.46
WBC APACHE IIa
<3,000 or >14,900/mm3
32 (50%) 177 (47%) 0.61 16 (53%) 109 (41%) 0.18
Rectal temperature APACHE IIa
<36.0°C or >38.4°C
38 (59%) 219 (58%) 0.80 12 (40%) 166 (62%) 0.032
Arterial pH Apache IIa
<7.33 or >7.49
52 (81%) 254 (67%) 0.02 22 (73%) 173 (65%) 0.34
Hypotension before the ICU 32 (50%) 178 (47%) 0.64 14 (47%) 121 (45%) 0.88
Vasopressor/Catecholamine use 43 (67%) 240 (63%) 0.38 22 (73.3) 175 (65%) 0.38
Urine output (first 6 hours), mL 395
(209-785)
560
(331-910)
0.01 382
(229-546)
626
(358-1,020)
0.001
Mechanical ventilationb 59 (92%) 335 (88%) 0.35 22 (73%) 240 (90%) 0.006
Length of mechanical ventilation,b days 3.5 ± 2.3 2.8 ± 2.5 0.06 3.6 ± 3.0 2.6 ± 2.3 0.019
uCysC, mg/L 0.32
(0.08-2.21)
0.08
(0.04-0.68)
0.0004 5.48
(0.85-13.05)
0.06
(0.02-0.15)
<0.0001
uCr, mmol/L 6.10
(2.55-9.57)
5.3
(2.43-9.947)
0.94 8.85
(5.30-13.13)
4.05
(1.90-7.80)
<0.0001
pCr, mmol/L 0.09
(0.07-0.13)
0.09
(0.07-0.12)
0.64 0.15
(0.10-0.18)
0.08
(0.07-0.10)
<0.0001
pCysC, mg/L 1.0
(0.76-1.44)
0.83
(0.65-1.18)
0.01 1.32
(0.93-1.90)
0.74
(0.61-1.00)
<0.0001
Length of ICU stay, hours 100
(54-162)
70
(42-183)
0.37 112
(58-334)
62
(10-144)
0.004
Dead within 30 days 64 (100%) 0   4 (13%) 32 (12%) 0.83
AKI 24 (38%) 101(27%) 0.07 30 (100%) 0  
Sepsis 12 (19%) 69 (18%) 0.9 30 (100%) 0  
  1. All data are on admission to the intensive care unit, with the exception of Baseline pCr, the timing of which is described in the text. Presented for categoric variables are number, n (%) and for continuous variables normally distributed, mean ± SD and not normally distributed, median (interquartile range). AKI, acute kidney injury on admission to intensive care; uCysC, urinary cystatin C; uCr, urinary creatinine; pCysC, plasma cystatin C; pCr, plasma creatinine; WBC, white blood cell.
  2. aAPACHE II are the numbers (n) and percentage of patients with non-normal (non-zero) scores for each of the APACHE II subcategories listed.
  3. bWithin 7 days of entry to ICU.