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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and cystatin C concentrations on admission to the ICU for cohorts with and without sepsis or AKI

From: Urinary cystatin C is diagnostic of acute kidney injury and sepsis, and predicts mortality in the intensive care unit

  Sepsis
(n = 81)
Not sepsis
(n = 363)
P AKI
(n = 125)
Not AKI
(n = 319)
P
Age, years 58 ± 18 60 ± 18 0.28 62 ± 15 58 ± 18 0.12
Female 38 (47%) 134 (36%) 0.095 45 (36%) 127 (40%) 0.46
Baseline pCr, mmol/L 0.07
(0.06-0.09)
0.08
(0.06-0.10)
0.028 0.08
(0.06-0.10)
0.07
(0.06-0.09)
0.33
Total APACHE II score 17.4 ± 6.2 17.8 ± 6.4 0.57 19.5 ± 6.3 17 ± 6.2 <0.001
Heart rate APACHE IIa
<70 or >109 beats/minute
63 (77%) 263 (73%) 0.33 91 (73%) 235 (74%) 0.85
Respiratory rate APACHE IIa
<12 or >24 breaths/minute
48 (61%) 159 (44%) 0.012 51 (41%) 156 (49%) 0.12
WBC APACHE IIa
<3,000 or >14,900/mm3
42 (52%) 167 (46%) 0.34 74 (59%) 135 (42%) 0.001
Rectal temperature APACHE IIa
<36.0°C or >38.4°C
32 (40%) 225 (62%) 0.0003 71 (57%) 186 (58%) 0.77
Arterial pH Apache IIa
<7.33 or >7.49
56 (70%) 252 (69%) 0.96 100 (80%) 206 (65%) 0.002
Hypotension before ICU 27 (33%) 183 (50%) 0.005 76 (61%) 134 (42%) <0.0001
Vasopressor/Catecholamine use 48 (60%) 235 (65%) 0.43 82 (65%) 201 (63%) 0.91
Urine output (first 6 hours), mL 454
(294-611)
570
(320-960)
0.005 410
(254-645)
592
(340-996)
<0.0001
Mechanical ventilationb 68 (84%) 326 (90%) 0.13 108 (86%) 286 (90%) 0.33
Length of mechanical ventilation,b days 3.8 ± 2.7 2.7 ± 2.4 <0.001 3.4 ± 2.6 2.8 ± 2.4 0.025
uCysC, mg/L 2.45
(0.26-10.7)
0.08
(0.03-0.23)
<0.0001 0.45
(0.09-2.54)
0.07
(0.03-0.28)
<0.0001
uCr, mmol/L 7.00
(4.6-11.8)
4.70
(2.2-9.2)
0.0006 7.40
(3.8-11.6)
4.60
(2.1-8.3)
<0.0001
pCr, mmol/L 0.09
(0.07-0.14)
0.09
(0.07-0.12)
0.49 0.14
(0.11-0.18)
0.08
(0.07-0.10)
<0.0001
pCysC, mg/L 0.98
(0.78-1.41)
0.81
(0.65-1.22)
0.034 1.26
(0.88-1.81)
0.76
(0.62-1.02)
<0.0001
Length of ICU stay, hours 121
(51-310)
68
(42-159)
<0.001 92
(54-162)
67
(42-160)
0.006
Dead within 30 days 12 (15%) 52 (14%) 0.91 24 (19%) 40 (13%) 0.07
AKI 30 (37%) 95 (26%) 0.05 125 (100%) 0 -
Sepsis 81 (100%) 0 - 30 (24%) 51(16%) 0.05
  1. All data are on admission to the intensive care unit, with the exception of Baseline pCr, the timing of which is described in the text. Presented for categoric variables are number, n(%), and for continuous variables normally distributed, mean ± SD, and not normally distributed, median (interquartile range). AKI, acute kidney injury on admission to intensive care; uCysC, urinary cystatin C; uCr, urinary creatinine; pCysC, plasma cystatin C; pCr, plasma creatinine; WBC, white blood cell.
  2. aAPACHE II are the numbers (n) and percentage of patients with non-normal (non-zero) scores for each of the APACHE II subcategories listed.
  3. bWithin 7 days of entry to ICU.