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Table 1 Patient characteristics and clinical outcomes

From: Enhanced protein-energy provision via the enteral route in critically ill patients: a single center feasibility trial of the PEP uP protocol

  Before
(n = 20)
After
(n = 30)
P-value*
Age (years) 0.39
Mean ± SD 59.5 ± 17.3 64.4 ± 16.7  
Gender 1.0
Female 9 (45.0%) 13 (43.3%)  
Male 11 (55.0%) 17 (56.7%)  
Admission category 0.86
Medical 16 (80.0%) 22 (73.3%)  
Surgical: Elective 3 (15.0%) 7 (23.3%)  
Surgical: Emergency 1 (5.0%) 1 (3.3%)  
Admission diagnosis 0.07
Cardiovascular/vascular 7 (35.0%) 7 (23.3%)  
Respiratory 3 (15.0%) 8 (26.7%)  
Gastrointestinal 0 5 (16.7%)  
Neurologic 1 (5.0%) 2 (6.7%)  
Sepsis 5 (25.0%) 1 (3.3%)  
Trauma 3 (15.0%) 1 (3.3%)  
Metabolic 0 2 (6.7%)  
Renal 0 2 (6.7%)  
Other 1 (5.0%) 2 (6.7%)  
APACHE II score 0.73
Mean ± SD 20.7 ± 6.9 21.3 ± 7.3  
Presence of ARDS 1.0
No 20 (100.0%) 29 (96.7%)  
Yes 0 1 (3.3%)  
Length of ICU stay (days) 0.14
Median(IQR) 17.9 (11.2 to 47.8) 8.5 (4.9 to 12.7)  
Length of hospital stay (days) 0.02
Median (IQR) 57.4 (36.3 to Und.‡) 22.9 (18.0 to 46.6)  
Length of mechanical ventilation (days) 0.06
Median(IQR) 11.8 (7.6 to 43.3) 5.8 (3.6 to 8.6)  
Patient died within 60 days of ICU admission 0.16
No 18 (90.0%) 21 (70.0%)  
Yes 2 (10.0%) 9 (30.0%)  
  1. * Age and Apache II score were tested by the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, categorical variables were tested by Fisher's exact test, and length of stay variables were tested by the log-rank test.
  2. † Based on 60-day survivors only. Time before ICU admission is not counted.
  3. ‡ Undefined because 44% (8/18) of surviving patients remained in hospital 60 days after ICU admission.
  4. SD, standard deviation; IQR, interquartile range; APACHE, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation score; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; ICU, intensive care unit.