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Table 1 Sleep architecture and study condition for subjects (n = 14)

From: Effects of earplugs and eye masks on nocturnal sleep, melatonin and cortisol in a simulated intensive care unit environment

Variable Baseline NL NLEE ANOVA P Contrast P
Time in bed (min) 539.7 ± 1.7 536.0 ± 15.9 536.0 ± 13.7 0.48 ----
Total sleep time (min) 456.0 ± 39.9 454.7 ± 41.8 475.1 ± 33.4 0.20 0.06
Sleep efficiency
Index
0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.0 0.12 0.09
REM% 10.9 ± 5.9 9.3 ± 4.3 12.9 ± 4.3 0.03 0.005
S1% 21.8 ± 10.4 23.4 ± 11.9 22.5 ± 9.7 0.80 0.67
S2% 43.9 ± 10.2 45.6 ± 10.3 43.5 ± 6.9 0.57 0.20
S3% 14.0 ± 6.8 11.6 ± 6.5 13.9 ± 5.6 0.30 0.11
Sleep onset latency (min) 22.3 ± 13.1 23.4 ± 16.6 15.4 ± 16.4 0.46 0.055
REM latency (min) 121.8 ± 47.0 146.9 ± 56.2 105.7 ± 47.0 0.02 0.013
Arousals index 13.0 ± 4.7 15.1 ± 6.2 12.2 ± 6.5 0.03 0.04
  1. ANOVA, repeated measures analysis of variance; Contrast, paired student's test or wilcoxon's rank sum test of simulated ICU environment with and without earplugs and eye masks; NL, recorded ICU noise and light exposure; NLEE, recorded ICU noise and light, subjects wore earplugs and eye masks; REM, rapid eye movement.