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Table 4 Characteristics of the 56 patients included in the matched case-control analysis

From: Nicotine withdrawal and agitation in ventilated critically ill patients

  Smokers
(n = 31)
Nonsmokers
(n = 31)
P Value
Age,$ years 56 (51-64) 58 (55-66) NA
Male gender,$ n (%) 30 (97) 30 (97) NA
Medical origin, n (%) 26 (84) 23 (74) 0.5
Source, admission from the ward, n (%) 6 (19) 8 (26) 0.8
Comorbidities, n (%)    
   Hypertension 5 (16) 8 (26) 0.5
   Alcoholism 20 (65) 20 (65) NA
   Psychotropic drug use 10 (32) 7 (23) 0.6
Tobacco dependency    
   Pack-years 31 (22-39) NA  
   Fagerström score 6 (3.5-6.5) NA  
Score ≤4 (weak dependence), n (%) 13 (42)   
Score >4 (strong dependence), n (%) 18 (64)   
Primary diagnosis,$ n (%)    
Cardiac disease 1 (4) 4 (13)  
Respiratory disease 11 (35) 13 (42) 0.2
Septic shock 10 (32) 7 (23)  
Neurologic disease 2 (6) 2 (6)  
Surgery 1 (4) 4 (13)  
Other 6 (19) 1 (4)  
SAPS II 48 (38-59) 51 (40-61) 0.8
SOFA 8 (5-10) 8 (6-11) 0.4
Vasopressor, n (%) 23 (74) 20 (65) 0.6
Body temperature >38.5°C, n (%) 13 (42) 16 (52) 0.6
NIV, n (%) 10 (32) 9 (29) 0.9
Failure of NIV, n (% of NIV) 7 (70) 7 (78) 0.9
PaO2/FiO2 ratio 205 (165-260) 189 (146-255) 0.6
Sedation-analgesia    
Number of days/patient with Ramsay score ≥4 3 (2-5) 3 (2-6) 0.5
Sedation-free days, days 1 (0-4) 3 (0-6) 0.2
Total dose of midazolam (mg/kg)§ 2 (0-11) 2 (0-8) 0.8
Total dose of propofol (mg/kg)§ 48 (11-130) 7 (0-89) 0.3
Total dose of sufentanyl (μg/kg)§ 13 (2-24) 10 (2-45) 0.7
At least one event of agitation,* n (%) 25 (80) 13 (42) 0.004
At least one event of delirium, n (%) 11 (35) 7 (23) 0.4
ICU LOS, days 13 (6-23) 15 (7-30) 0.9
ICU mortality, n (%) 5 (16) 8 (26) 0.5
  1. Results are expressed as number (%) or median (interquartile range) when appropriate. $Matched variables. §Total dose of sedatives and analgesics administered during ICU stay, taking into account the extra doses needed to abort the episodes of agitation/delirium. Abbreviations: NA = not attributable; SAPS II = Simplified Acute Physiology Score II; SOFA = Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; NIV = noninvasive ventilation; ICU = intensive care unit; LOS = length of stay.