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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors associated with agitation in the ICU

From: Nicotine withdrawal and agitation in ventilated critically ill patients

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  Odd ratio (95%CI) P value Odd ratio (95%CI) P value
Age* 0.97 (0.95-0.99) 0.02 - -
Male gender 2.91 (1.21-6.99) 0.02 2.27 (0.90-5.68) 0.08
Hypertension 1.25 (0.88-1.60) 0.3   
Chronic alcoholism* 1.91 (0.95-3.83) 0.07 - -
Chronic use of psychotropics 1.39 (0.67-2.90) 0.4   
Septic shock 0.96 (0.64-1.45) 0.9   
SAPS II 0.98 (0.96-1.01) 0.07 0.98 (0.96-1.01) 0.1
SOFA§ 0.88 (0.79-0.98) 0.02   
Body temperature >38.5°C 1.22 (0.82-1.57) 0.2   
PaO2/FiO2 0.81 (0.56-1.04) 0.09 - -
Active smoking 3.72 (1.77-7.83) 0.0005 3.13 (1.45-6.74) 0.003
  1. Abbreviations: 95%CI = 95% confidence interval; SAPS II = Simplified Acute Physiology Score II; SOFA = Sequential Organ Failure Assessment. *Age and Chronic alcoholism were entered in the model and then removed from the model by the backward stepwise selection. §Despite statistical significance in univariate analysis, SOFA was not included in the multivariate model to avoid biased conclusions due to redundancy of the variables that are part of both SAPS II and SOFA.