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Table 2 Morbidity and mortality according to the smoking status

From: Nicotine withdrawal and agitation in ventilated critically ill patients

  Smokers
(n = 44)
Nonsmokers
(n = 100)
P value
Evaluation of agitation (SAS ≥5)    
Patients who develop at least one event, n (%) 28 (64) 32 (32) 0.0005
   Days with agitation/patient 1.5 (0-4) 0 (0-1) 0.0006
   Number of episodes of agitation/day/patient with agitation 2 (1-3.5) 2 (1-4) 0.9
Evaluation of delirium (ICDSC ≥4)    
Patients who develop at least one event, n (%) 16 (37) 24 (24) 0.2
Rates of nosocomial infections$    
   Ventilator-associated pneumonia 16.7 15.9 0.5
   Urinary tract infection 3.9 2.9 0.4
   Catheter colonization 29.0 26.4 0.1
   Bacteremia 4.1 3.9 0.6
Rates of accidental removal of tubes and catheters*    
   Endotracheal tube (self-extubation) 7.5 3.7 <0.0001
   Arterial, venous, or bladder catheter 20.1 11.9 <0.0001
   Nasogastric tube 33.5 22.4 0.0003
Sedation/analgesia    
   Number of days/patient with Ramsay score ≥4 3 (2-5) 4 (2-5.5) 0.4
   Sedation-free days, days 1.5 (0-4) 2 (0-4.5) 0.6
   Total dose of midazolam (mg/kg)§ 3 (0-14) 3 (0-10) 0.6
   Total dose of propofol (mg/kg)§ 42 (9-122) 18 (0-79) 0.1
   Total dose of sufentanyl (μg/kg)§ 12 (2-25) 9 (4-22) 0.9
Sedation/physical restraints related to agitation/delirium, n (%)    
   Supplemental sedatives and analgesics 23 (52) 15 (15) <0.0001
   Physical restraints 21 (48) 13 (13) <0.0001
   Neuroleptics 11 (25) 7 (7) 0.005
Mechanical ventilation (n = 100%)    
   Noninvasive ventilation (NIV), n (%) 14 (32) 31 (31) 0.9
   Failure of NIV requiring intubation, n (% of NIV) 9 (64) 12 (39) 0.2
   Length of NIV, days 3 (2-7) 2 (1-3.5) 0.07
   Length of mechanical ventilation, days 10 (4.5-18.5) 10 (5.5-19.5) 0.6
   Mechanical ventilation-free days, days 1.5 (0.5-4) 2 (0-4) 0.7
ICU LOS, days 15 (6-22.5) 14 (8-27.5) 0.8
ICU mortality, n (%) 7 (16) 28 (28) 0.1
  1. Abbreviations: SAS = Sedation-Agitation Scale; ICDSC = Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist; NIV = noninvasive ventilation; ICU = Intensive Care Unit; LOS = length of stay. Data are presented as number (percentage) or median (interquartile range) when appropriate. $ Rates of nosocomial infections according to the time at risk for infection (number of ventilator-associated pneumonias, catheter colonizations, and urinary tract infections per 1,000 ventilation-days, 1,000 catheter-days, and 1,000 bladder catheter-days, respectively). Number of events of bacteremia for 1,000 days if ICU stay. *Rates of accidental removal of endotracheal tubes (self-extubation), venous, arterial, and bladder catheters, nasogastric tubes, according to the time at risk for removal (number of tubes or catheters removed per 1,000 days in place). §Total dose of sedatives and analgesics administered during ICU stay, taking into account the extra doses needed to abort the episodes of agitation/delirium.