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Table 2 American College of Surgeons Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) classification of blood loss based on initial patient presentation

From: Management of bleeding following major trauma: an updated European guideline

  Class I Class II Class III Class IV
Blood loss* (ml) Up to750 750-1500 1500-2000 >2000
Blood loss (% blood volume) Up to 15% 15%-30% 30%-40% >40%
Pulse rate <100 100-120 120-140 >140
Blood pressure Normal Normal Decreased Decreased
Pulse pressure (mmHg) Normal or increased Decreased Decreased Decreased
Respiratory rate 14-20 20-30 30-40 >35
Urine output (ml/h) >30 20-30 5-15 Negligible
Central nervous system/mental status Slightly anxious Mildly anxious Anxious, confused Confused, lethargic
Fluid replacement Crystalloid Crystalloid Crystalloid and blood Crystalloid and blood
  1. Table reprinted with permission from the American College of Surgeons [37].
  2. *for a 70 kg male