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Table 8 Acute phase protein biomarkers identified in the literature search (with some selected references)

From: Sepsis biomarkers: a review

Sepsis Marker Evaluated in experimental studies Evaluated in clinical studies Evaluated as a prognostic factor Comment
Serum amyloid A (SAA) [194, 195] B(s) Correlated with CRP in patients with septic shock
Ceruloplasmin [196, 197]   A Predicted liver dysfunction in patients with sepsis
C-reactive protein (CRP) [11, 198, 199]   C √* Predicted response to therapy
Ferritin [200]   B(m) Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, correlated with SOFA score
Alpha1-acid glycoprotein [201, 202] B Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, correlated with SOFA score
Hepcidin [203]   B   Incraesed in sepsis compared with healthy controls and patients with chronic renal failure
Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) [39, 204] C(s) Higher in sepsis compared with no sepsis, no prognostic value
Procalcitonin [21, 134, 205] C √* Increased in infected compared with non-infected patients
Pentraxin 3 [206, 207]   C Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, correlated with APACHE II score
  1. *sensitivity and specificity of less than 90%; A, Clinical study with less than 20 patients; B, Clinical study with 20 to 50 patients; C, Clinical study with more than 50 patients; (s), surgical patients only; (m), medical patients only.
  2. APACHE: acute physiology and chronic health evaluation; SOFA: sequential organ failure assessment.