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Table 6 Biomarkers related to vaosdilation identified in the literature search (with some selected references)

From: Sepsis biomarkers: a review

Sepsis marker Evaluated in experimental studies Evaluated in clinical studies Evaluated as a prognostic factor Comment
Adrenomedullin and pro-adrenomedullin [145, 146]   B √* Predicted development of septic shock
Anandamide [147] A   Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) (activity and serum) [148, 149] B   Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls
2-arachidonoylglycerol [150]   A   Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls
Copeptin [151]   C(m) √* Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, correlated with APACHE II score
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) [152]   A   Increased in patients with septic shock compared with healthy controls
Cycling nucleotides [153, 154] A(m) Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days
Elastin [155]   B   Decreased in sepsis compared with healthy controls
cGRP [156, 157] C(s) Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, correlated with APACHE II score
47 kD HK [158]   B(m)   Correlated with severity of sepsis
Neuropeptide Y [159, 160] A   Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls
Nitric oxide (NO), nitrate, nitrite [161, 162] B Predicted development of septic shock
Substance P [156, 163] C(s) Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days (predictive only in the late phase of sepsis, 2 days before death)
Tetrahydrobiopterin [164, 165]   A   Increased in sepsis compared with non-septic critically ill patients
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) [166, 167] A   Increased in tissue samples from patients with peritonitis compared with no peritonitis
  1. *sensitivity and specificity of less than 90%; A, Clinical study with less than 20 patients; B, Clinical study with 20 to 50 patients; C, Clinical study with more than 50 patients; (s), surgical patients only; (m), medical patients only.
  2. APACHE: acute physiology and chornic health evaluation; cGRP: calcitonin gene-related peptide; HK: high-molecular weight kininogen.