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Table 3 Receptor biomarkers identified in the literature search (with some selected references)

From: Sepsis biomarkers: a review

Sepsis marker Evaluated in experimental studies Evaluated in clinical studies Evaluated as a prognostic factor Comment
CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 2 [95]    
CCR 3 [96]   C Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days
C5L2 [97] B Predicted development of MOF
CRTh2 [98]   C Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days
Fas receptor (soluble) [99]   B(m) Predicted development of MOF
Fc-gamma RIII [100]   A Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls, correlated with APACHE II score
FLT-1 (soluble) [101, 102] C Correlated with APACHE II score
GP130 [103]   A   Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls
IL-2 receptor (soluble) [104]   C Predicted development of septic shock
Group II phospholipase A2 (PLA2-II) (soluble) [105, 106] B   Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days
RAGE (soluble) [107]   B √* Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days
ST2 (soluble, IL-1 receptor) [108]   A(s) Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 [109] B Increased in septic compared with non-septic critically ill patients
Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)1 [110]    
TREM-1 (soluble) [111, 112] C Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days
TNF-receptor (soluble) [113]   B   Predicted development of MOF
Urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) (soluble) [114]   C(m) Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days
  1. *sensitivity and specificity of less than 90%; A, Clinical study with less than 20 patients; B, Clinical study with 20 to 50 patients; C, Clinical study with more than 50 patients; (s), surgical patients only; (m), medical patients only.
  2. APACHE: acute physiology and chronic health evaluation; MOF: multiple organ failure; TREM: triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells; RAGE: receptor for advanced glycation end-products.