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Table 2 Cell marker biomarkers identified in the literature search (with some selected references)

From: Sepsis biomarkers: a review

Sepsis Marker Evaluated in experimental studies Evaluated in clinical studies Evaluated as a prognostic factor Comment
CD10 [80, 81] A   Decreased in septic shock compared with healthy controls
CD11b [82, 83] B(s) Correlation with SOFA score
CD11c [84]   A   Decreased in septic shock compared with healthy controls
CD14 (cellular and soluble) [85]   C Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days
CD18 [86]    
CD25 (cellular and soluble) [87]   A   Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days
CD28 (soluble) [88]   B Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days
CD40 (cellular and soluble) [89]   B Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days
CD48 [90]   B   Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls
CD64 [91]   B Correlation with APACHE II and SOFA scores
CD69 [92]   A   Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls
CD80 [88]   B Predicted development of septic shock
CD163 (soluble) [93]   C Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days
mHLA-DR (soluble) [94]   C √* Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days in patients with septic shock
  1. *sensitivity and specificity of less than 90%; A, Clinical study with less than 20 patients; B, Clinical study with 20 to 50 patients; C, Clinical study with more than 50 patients; (s), surgical patients only.
  2. APACHE: acute physiology and chronic health evaluation; SOFA: sequential organ failure assessment.