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Table 10 Biomarkers that have been assessed for use in the diagnosis of sepsis

From: Sepsis biomarkers: a review

  Sepsis biomarker Clinical study Type of measurement Outcome
1 aPTT**[35] C c High negative predictive value
2 CD11b***[33] B s Higher values in neonates with sepsis than in those with possible infection
3 CD25[87] A s Distinguished between sepsis and SIRS
4 CD64***[32, 287] C s Low sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between viral and bacterial infections
5 Complement (C3, C4, C5a)[219] B s Distinguished between sepsis and SIRS
6 EA complex[230] C s Diagnosis of sepsis, increased earlier than CRP
7 ELAM-1 (cellular and soluble)[129] C(s) c Increased in trauma patients with sepsis compared with no sepsis
8 Endocan [127] B s Distinguished between sepsis and SIRS
9 E-Selectin (cellular and soluble)[136] B s Distinguished between sepsis and SIRS
10 Fibrin degradation products[36] B s High negative predictive value
11 Gas6[241] B s Higher values in patients with severe sepsis compared with patients with organ failure but no sepsis
12 G-CSF[237] C s Distinguished between sepsis and SIRS
13 Gelsolin[238] B(s) c Higher in septic patients compared with patients without sepsis
14 IL-1 receptor antagonist[55] C s Early diagnosis of sepsis before symptoms in newborns
15 IL-8*[61] C s Higher in septic neutropenic patients compared with febril neutropenic patients without sepsis
16 IL-10[65] A s Higher in septic shock compared with cardiogenic shock
17 IL-12***[29] C s Diagnosis of sepsis in pediatric patients
18 IL-18[70] B(s) s Distinguished between Gram-positive and Gram-negative sepsis. Higher in trauma patients with sepsis than in those without
19 IP-10***[30] C s Early diagnosis of sepsis in newborns
20 Laminin[38] A s Distinguished between Candida sepsis and bacterial sepsis
21 LBP[204] C s Distinguished between Gram-positive sepsis and Gram-negative
22 MCP-1[61] C s Distinguished between sepsis and SIRS in neutropenic pediatric patients
23 NO, nitrate, nitrite[161] B s Higher in septic shock compared with cardiogenic shock
24 Osteopontin[75] B s Distinguished between sepsis and SIRS
25 PAI-1[118] B s Higher in patients with sepsis and DIC compared with no-septic patients with DIC
26 Pentraxin 3[207] C s Distinguished between septic shock and SIRS
27 Peptidoglycan[262] B(s) c Higher in postoperative patients with infection compared with no-infected postoperative patients
28 pFN[270] B s Distinguished between sepsis and SIRS
29 PLA2-II (soluble)***[31] B s Distinguished between bacteremic and non-bacteremic infections
30 Serum lysozyme (enzyme activity)[258] B s Distinguished between sepsis and organ rejection in transplanted patients
31 ST2 (soluble)[108] A s Higher in septic patients compared with those with no sepsis
32 Surfactant protein (A, B, C, D)[192] B s Early diagnosis of ARDS in septic patients
33 TREM-1 (soluble)[288, 289] C s Distinguished between sepsis and SIRS, diagnosed pneumonia
34 Troponin[193] B s Diagnosis of myocardial dysfunction in septic patients
  1. *sensitivity and specificity of less than 90%; **sensitivity of more than 90% but specificity of less than 90%; ***sensitivity and specificity more than 90%; A, Clinical study with less than 20 patients; B, Clinical study with 20 to 50 patients; C, Clinical study with more than 50 patients; (s), surgical patients only; (m), medical patients only; s, single value; c, values over time.
  2. aPTT: activated partial thromboplastin time; ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; CRP: C-reactive protein; DIC: disseminated intravascular coagulopathy; EA: elastase alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor; ELAM: endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule; G-CSF: granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; IP: interferon-induced protein; LBP: lipopolysaccharide-binding protein; MCP: monocyte chemotactic protein; NO: nitric oxide; PAI: plasminogen activator inhibitor; pFN: plasma fibronectin; PLA2: phospholipase A2; SIRS: systemic inflammatory response syndrome; TREM: triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells.