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Table 1 Vasopressin and copeptin levels in humans

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Vasopressin in the management of septic shock

Study Condition Vasopressin (AVP) levels Provasopressin Copeptin levels
Landry and colleagues [ 48 ] Septic shock 3.1 pg/ml   
  Cardiogenic shock 22.7 pg/ml   
Lin and colleagues [61] Septic shock 3.6 pg/ml   
  Sepsis 10.6 pg/ml   
  Severe sepsis 21.8 pg/ml   
Jochberger and colleagues [59] Sepsis 11.9 pg/ml   
Morgenthaler and colleagues [57] Critically ill (no sepsis)    27 pM
  Sepsis    50 pM
  Severe sepsis    74 pM
  Septic shock    171 pM
Lodha and colleagues [64] Pediatric septic shock 116 pg/ml   
  Pediatric severe sepsis 106 pg/ml   
  Multiple trauma 44.3 pM   
Russell and colleagues [52] Septic shock 3.2 pM   
  Septic shock plus vasopressin infusion (0.03 U/minute) at 6 hours 74 pM   
  Septic shock plus vasopressin infusion (0.03 U/minute) at 24 hours 98 pM   
Jochberger and colleagues [53] Infection 3.2 pM*   25 pM*
  Severe sepsis 6.5 pM*   60 pM*
  Septic shock 6.4 pM*   70 pM*
Sharshar and colleagues[138] Septic shock 1.6, 1.8, 16 pg/ml   
   Low neurophypophyseal T1 (AVP)   
  Neurohypophyseal levels of AVP    
Sharshar and colleagues [139] Septic shock X   
Le Clerc and colleagues [140] Pediatric meningococcal shock X   
Kruger and colleagues [141] Community-acquired pneumonia    
  Antibiotic pretreatment    12.8 pmol/l
  Community-acquired pneumonia    
  No antibiotic pretreatment    20. 8 pmol/l
de Kruif and colleagues [142] Pre Escherichia coli endotoxin in humans   12.5 pmol/l  
  Peak E. coli endotoxin in humans   18.0 pmol/l  
  Prednisone 10 mg pretreatment. Peak E. coli endotoxin in humans   10.6 pmol/l  
  Prednisone 30 mg pretreatment. Peak E. coli endotoxin in humans   6.1pmol/l  
  1. *Estimated from the figures and text of Jochberger and colleagues [53]. Studies of septic shock are in bold for comparison.