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Table 1 Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and physiological measurements

From: One year mortality of patients treated with an emergency department based early goal directed therapy protocol for severe sepsis and septic shock: a before and after study

  Pre-implementation Post-implementation  
Variable n = 79 n = 206 P value
Age (mean years ± SD) 58 ± 16 56 ± 18 0.58
Race n, (%)    
   Caucasian 40 (51) 110 (54) 0.68
   Black American 38 (48) 84 (41) 0.27
Gender n, (%)    
   Male 47 (59) 101 (49) 0.12
   Female 32 (41) 105 (51) 0.12
Co-morbidities n, (%)    
   Diabetes mellitus 23 (29) 53 (26) 0.56
   COPD 12 (15) 41 (20) 0.37
   HIV 8 (10) 24 (12) 0.74
   DD-End-stage renal disease 25 (32) 28 (14) 0.0008
   Cancer 9 (11) 33 (16) 0.33
   Organ transplant 3 (4) 4 (2) 0.4
   Indwelling vascular line 7 (9) 27 (13) 0.33
   Nursing home resident 18 (23) 39 (19) 0.47
   Do not resuscitate 5 (6) 5 (2) 0.14
ED vital signs (mean ± SD)    
   Lowest SBP (median, (IQR) mmHg) 85 (73-91) 72 (65-79) < 0.0001
   Highest pulse (beats/min) 118 ± 27 120 ± 25 0.5
   Highest RR (breaths/min) 26 ± 9 30 ± 11 0.008
   Highest temperature (°F) 101 ± 3 100 ± 3 0.04
   Lowest O2 saturation (%) 94 ± 7 92 ± 7 0.35
   Lowest CVP (mmHg) - 7 ± 4 -
   Highest CVP (mmHg) - 13 ± 6 -
   Lowest ScVO2 (%) - 67 ± 13 -
   Highest ScVO2 (%) - 80 ± 11 -
ED SOFA score (mean ± SD) 5 ± 3 7 ± 4 0.0004
Lactate level** (mM, mean ± SD) 5 ± 3 4 ± 3 0.03
Suspected source of infection* n, (%)    
   Pulmonary 25 (32) 89 (43) 0.08
   Urinary tract 21 (27) 58 (28) 0.8
   Intra-abdominal 14 (1) 41 (20) 0.52
   Skin/soft tissue 13 (20) 27 (13) 0.22
   Blood (bacteremia) 2 (3) 21 (10) 0.03
   Unknown 12 (15) 16 (8) 0.07
  1. *Some patients had more than one suspected source, thus the total is more than 100%.
  2. **Lactate was only available in 33 of 79 before group patients and 193 of 206 after group.
  3. COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVP = central venous pressure; DD = dialysis dependent; ED = emergency department; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; IQR = interquartile range; O2 = oxygen; RR = respiratory rate; SBP = systolic blood pressure; ScvO2 = central venous oxygen saturation; SD = standard deviation; SOFA = sequential organ failure assessment.