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Table 1 Clinical and physiologic similarities shared by delirium and sleep disruption

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Delirium in ICU patients - importance of sleep deprivation

Clinical features
   Inattention
   Fluctuating mental status
   Impaired cognition, specifically those relating to executive function (memory, planning, creative thinking, judgment)
   Delayed recovery after the insult is removed
Risk factors
   Intensive care unit admission
   Mechanical ventilation
   Pain
   Stress
   Pre-existing cognitive impairment
   Advanced age
   Alcoholism
   Depression
   Sepsis
   Head trauma
   Medications
Sedatives, especially γ-aminobutyric acid agonists such as benzodiazepines
Anticholinergics
Sympathomimetics
Corticosteroids
Anticonvulsants
Pathophysiology
   Cholinergic deficiency
   Dopaminergic excess
   Altered metabolism at specific regions of the central nervous system
Prefrontal cortex
Posterior parietal cortex