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Table 1 The β-adrenergic system

From: Bench-to-bedside review: β-Adrenergic modulation in sepsis

  Target Sympathetic receptor
Heart Cardiac muscle β1β2 increases
  Heart rate β1β2 increases
Blood vessels Vascular smooth muscle β2 relaxes
  Smaller coronary arteries β2 dilates
  Hepatic artery β2 dilates
  Arteries to skeletal muscle β2 dilates
  Veins β2 dilates
Respiratory system Smooth muscles of bronchioles β2 relaxes
Digestive system Smooth muscle of gastrointestinal tract β2 relaxes
  Sphincters of gastrointestinal tract β2 contracts
  Kidney β1 enhances renin secretion
  Liver β2 increases glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis
  Adipose cells β1β3 stimulates lipolysis
Urinary system Detrusor β2 relaxes
  Sphincter β2 relaxes
Reproductive system Uterus β2 relaxes
Nervous system Ciliary muscles β2 relaxes