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Table 1 Clinical and biochemical characteristics of 171 patients suspected of having meningitis on admission

From: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with central nervous system infection

  Purulent meningitis of known aetiology (n = 31) Purulent meningitis of unknown aetiology (n = 20) Lymphocytic meningitis (n = 59) Encephalitis (n = 11) No CNS infection (n = 50)
Female sex 45% (14/31) 50% (10/20) 41% (24/59) 45% (5/11) 48% (24/50)
Age (in years) 20 (10–53) (31/31) 23 (7–30) (20/20) 25 (17–31) (59/59) 55 (46–64) (11/11) 28 (10–44) (50/50)
Underlying illness* 23% (7/31) 10% (2/20) 2% (1/59) 0% (0/11) 4% (2/50)
Body temperature (°C) 38.8 (38.4–39.6) (27/31) 38.3 (38.0–39.2) (18/20) 38.1 (37.7–38.7) (49/59) 37.8 (37.1–38.9) (9/11) 39 (37.5–39.6) (37/50)
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 93 (87–117) (22/31) 90 (79–106) (12/20) 90 (82–100) (42/59) 102 (86–115) (10/11) 93 (77–103) (30/50)
Heart rate (beats/minute) 113 (98–129)†‡ (20/31) 90 (80–108) (16/20) 88 (73–100) (44/59) 80 (70–101) (10/11) 100 (85–120) (30/50)
Septic shock 16% (5/31) 0% (0/20) 0% (0/59) 0% (0/11) 8% (4/50)
Back rigidity 80%* (24/30) 95%ठ(18/19) 88%ठ(51/58) 40% (4/10) 57% (26/46)
Decreased consciousness 66%*†§ (19/29) 22%†‡ (4/18) 0% (0/57) 91%§ (10/11) 13% (6/46)
Assisted ventilation 45%*†§ (14/31) 0% (0/20) 0% (0/59) 20% (2/10) 10% (5/50)
Steroid therapy 35%*†§ (11/31) 0% (0/20) 0% (0/59) 10% (1/10) 0% (0/50)
Fatal outcome 23% (7/31) 5% (1/20) 0% (0/59) 18% (2/11) 4% (2/50)
Days in hospital (survivors) 11 (9–15)†§ (24/24) 9 (8–12)†§ (19/19) 4 (2–5) (59/59) 12 (11–30)§ (9/9) 4 (2–7) (48/48)
CSF WBC count (× 106 cells/l) 3380 (767–6,528)*†‡§ (31/31) 359 (128–1,066)‡§ (20/20) 139 (61–366)§ (59/59) 57 (13–102)§ (11/11) 1 (1–2) (50/50)
CSF PMNs (× 106 cells/l) 2,727 (398–5,404)*†‡§ (30/31) 305 (112–600)†‡§ (20/20) 25 (7–75)§ (56/59) 5 (2–29)§ (9/11) < 1
CSF mononuclear (× 106 cells/l) 248 (38–523)§ 30/31 16 (6–93)§ (20/20) 74 (25–327)§ (56/59) 79 (25–106)§ (9/11) < 1
CSF glucose (mmol/l) 2.2 (0.6–3.5)†§ (30/31) 3.3 (3.0–3.7)§ (17/20) 3.3 (3.0–3.6)§ (56/59) 3.1 (2.7–3.9) (10/11) 3.7 (3.4–4.5) (48/50)
CSF/blood glucose ratio 0.3 (0.1–0.5)*†§ (22/31) 0.6 (0.4–0.7) (15/20) 0.6 (0.5–0.7) (46/59) 0.5 (0.3–0.7) (8/11) 0.6 (0.6–0.8) (30/50)
CSF protein (g/l) 1.9 (1.5–4.8)*†§ (30/31) 0.7 (0.7–1.4)§ (20/20) 0.7 (0.4–1.3)§ (54/59) 1.1 (0.6–1.7)§ (11/11) 0.3 (0.2–0.5) (47/50)
Blood WBC count (× 109 cells/l) 21.7 (14.1–24.4)†‡§ (31/31) 14.4 (8.3–16.8) (20/20) 8.8 (7.3–10.9) (59/59) 7.4 (6.9–9.6) (9/11) 9.0 (6.2–12.8) (48/50)
Blood PMNs (× 109 cells/L) 17.1 (12.5–21.5)*†‡§ (30/31) 10.9 (7.0–15.0)†§ (20/20) 6.8 (5.3–8.5) (58/59) 4.5 (4.1–9.2) (4/11) 6.0 (4.5–9.6) (39/50)
Blood lymphocytes (× 109 cells/L) 1.1 (0.7–1.5) (30/31) 1.4 (1.1–1.8) (20/20) 1.5 (1.0–1.9) (58/59) 1.7 (0.8–2.1) (4/11) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) (38/50)
Blood monocytes (× 109 cells/l) 0.7 (0.4–1.0) (30/31) 0.6 (0.4–0.9) (20/20) 0.4 (0.3–0.6) (58/59) 0.6 (0.3–0.9) (4/11) 0.4 (0.3–0.8) (38/50)
Platelets (× 109 cells/l) 235 (166–286) (31/31) 286 (215–370) (20/20) 254 (210–310) (56/59) 231 (174–351) (9/11) 230 (168–275) (47/50)
Sodium (mmol/l) 136 (135–138) (30/31) 136 (133–139) (20/20) 138 (136–140) (59/59) 130 (127–140) (8/11) 138 (136–141) (43/50)
Potassium (mmol/l) 3.6 (3.3–3.9) (29/31) 3.8 (3.6–4.1) (19/20) 3.9 (3.7–4.2) (59/59) 4.0 (3.9–4.1) (7/11) 3.9 (3.4–4.3) (44/50)
Creatinine (μmol/l) 76 (54–85) (30/31) 58 (46/72) (18/20) 75 (55–85) (56/59) 83 (73–100) (7/11) 71 (49–87) (45/50)
Factors II, IIV and X 0.57 (0.4–0.7) (28/31) 0.92 (0.7–1.0) (11/20) 0.78 (0.7–1.0) (36/59) 0.73 (0.6–1.0) (7/11) 0.74 (0.5–0.9) (31/50)
Arterial PO2 (kPa) 11.0 (9.0–13.0) (15/31) 12.3 (10.7–13.8) (7/20) 8.5 (7.8–11.5) (3/59) 5.2 (1/11) 12.7 (8.0–15.0) (6/50)
Positive blood culture 62%*†‡§ (18/29) 0% (0/20) 0% (0/59) 0% (0/10) 6% (3/48)
  1. Values are expressed as percentage or median (interquartile range) (n/n evaluated). For continuous data Kruskal Wallis test with subsequent Mann-Whitney test was used; for categorical data Fisher's exact test was employed. When appropriate, correction for multiple comparisons with a Bonferroni coefficient of 10 was applied. *P < 0.05 versus purulent meningitis of unknown aetiology; P < 0.05 versus lymphocytic meningitis; P < 0.05 versus encephalitis; §P < 0.05 versus non-meningitis. aFor example, malignancy, diabetes, drug abuse or alcoholism. CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; PMN, polymorphonuclear leucocyte; PO2, partial oxygen tension; WBC, white blood cell.