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Table 3 Risk factors for VAP in patients undergoing major heart surgery in Europe in a univariate analysis

From: Ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients undergoing major heart surgery: an incidence study in Europe

Characteristic VAP (%)
(n = 20)
No VAP (%)
(n = 951)
Relative risk
(95% confidence interval
Pvalue
Mixed ICU 12 (60) 330 (34.7) 2.8 (1.1 to 6.9) 0.02
Peripheral vascular disease 8 (40) 171 (18) 3.0 (1.2 to 7.5) 0.01
Renal disease 4 (20) 29 (3) 7.9 (2.5 to 25.2) 0.004
American Society of Anesthesiologists > 3 12 (60) 286 (30) 3.5 (1.4 to 8.6) 0.006
Need for inotropic support 20 (100) 554 (58.3)   < 0.001
Need for intra-aortic balloon 5 (25) 54 (5.7) 5.5 (1.9 to 15.8) 0.005
Ascending aortic surgery 6 (30) 40 (4.2) 9.7 (3.5 to 26.7) 0.001
Median surgery duration in minutes (IQR) 287 (262 to 403) 210 (170 to 260)   < 0.001
Mean number of blood units transfused (SD) 16.8 ± 19.5 2.1 ± 4.4   < 0.001
Need of re-intervention 9 (45) 59 (6.2) 12.3 (4.9 to 31) < 0.001
Median number of days on mechanical ventilation (IQR) 9.5 (5 to 29) 1 (1 to 1)   < 0.001
  1. ICU = intensive care unit; IQR = interquartile range; SD = standard deviation; VAP = ventilator-associated pneumonia.