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Table 2 Preoperative and surgical characteristics of patients who underwent major heart surgery

From: Ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients undergoing major heart surgery: an incidence study in Europe

Characteristic Global
Preoperative  
   Number of patients 971
   Mean age in years (SD) 64.1 (12.2)
   Sex, male/female 690/281
   Underlying conditions (%)  
Myocardial infarction 351 (36.1)
Congestive heart failure 125 (12.9)
Central nervous system disorder 82 (8.4)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 84 (8.7)
Peripheral vascular disease 179 (18.4)
Ulcer disease 51 (5.3)
Diabetes mellitus 114 (11.7)
Renal disease 33 (3.4)
Malignant neoplasm 14 (1.4)
Liver disease 56 (5.8)
Severe pulmonary hypertension 29 (3.0)
Severe ventricular dysfunction 76 (7.9)
   Previous cardiac surgery (%) 96 (9.9)
   Mean Charlson comorbidity index (SD) 1.6 (1.6)
   McCabe and Jackson groups (%)  
1 68 (7.0)
2 689 (71.0)
3 214 (22.0)
   New York Heart Association functional class (%)  
I 148 (15.2)
II 290 (29.9)
III 390 (40.2)
IV 143 (14.7)
   American Society of Anesthesiologists score (%)  
1 0
2 10 (1.0)
3 673 (69.4)
4 279 (28.7
5 19 (1.9)
   EuroSCORE (%)  
Low risk (0 to 2) 213 (21.9)
Moderate risk (3 to 6) 407 (41.9)
High risk (> 6) 351 (36.1)
Surgical  
   Indication (%)  
Elective 781 (80.4)
Urgent 148 (15.2)
Emergent 42 (4.3)
   Type of surgery (%)  
Valvular replacement 267 (27.5)
CABG 528 (54.4)
Mixed (valvular and CABG) 76 (7.8)
Heart transplantation 14 (1.4)
Aortic surgery 46 (4.7)
Other 40 (4.1)
   Mean duration of surgery (minutes) (SD) 233 (96.0)
   Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time (minutes) (SD) 110.1 (54.1)
   Mean aortic cross-clamp time (minutes) (SD) 71.9 (42.2)
  1. CABG = Coronary artery bypass grafting; SD = standard deviation.