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Table 1 Selected adverse effects of prolonged bed rest

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Mobilizing patients in the intensive care unit – from pathophysiology to clinical trials

Musculoskeletal
• Decreased muscle protein synthesis [14]
• Muscle atrophy and decrease in lean muscle mass [80]
• Decreased muscle strength [14]
• Decreased exercise capacity [81]
• Connective tissue shortening and joint contractures [82]
• Decreased bone density [80]
• Pressure ulcers [83]
Pulmonary
• Atelectasis [84]
• Pneumonia [85]
• Decreased maximal inspiratory pressure and forced vital capacity [81]
Cardiovascular
• Decreased total cardiac and left ventricular size [86]
• Decreased lower extremity venous compliance [87]
• Orthostatic intolerance [88]
• Decreased cardiac output, stroke volume, and peripheral vascular resistance [86, 89, 90]
• Impaired microvascular function [91]
• Decreased cardiac response to carotid sinus stimulation [89]
Endocrine and Metabolism
• Decreased insulin sensitivity [91]
• Decreased aldosterone and plasma renin activity [92]
• Increased atrial natriuretic peptide [93]