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Table 1 Systems approach applied to intensive care

From: Improving care by understanding the way we work: human factors and behavioural science in the context of intensive care

System components Evidence from the paper of Fackler et al. [1] Evidence from other sources (sample)
Individual skill (technical and non-technical) Technical:  
  1. Pattern recognition  
  Non-technical: Non-technical skills in intensive care [9]:
  2. Management of uncertainty * Task management
  3. Creation and transfer of stories * Teamworking
   * Situation awareness
   * Decision-making
Teamwork and communication 4. Team coordination Assessment of teamwork in critical care [10, 11]
  5. Team communication  
  6. Fragmentary teams Assessment of communication in ICU staff [1214]:
  7. Shifting teams * Aspects of communication: openness, timeliness, and accuracy
  9. Role ambiguity * Interactions between leadership (by doctors and nurses) and communication
   Communication as a source of error [15]
ICU environment 8. Increasing shift handovers Physical, emotional, and professional environment in ICUs [16]
  10. External collaborators  
   Task interruptions in ICU doctors and nurses and potential for error [17]
  1. ICU, intensive care unit.