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Table 1 Studies of inhaled nitric oxide in adult patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Inhaled nitric oxide therapy in adults

     Intervention   
Study Year Number of patients/centres Patient details Control Inhaled nitric oxide Primary outcome Secondary outcomes
Dellinger, et al. [48] 1998 177/30 AECC ARDS within 72 hours. Excluded severe sepsis or non-pulmonary organ failure Nitrogen 1.25 to 80 ppm Duration of MV Oxygenation, PAP, and 28-day survival
Michael, et al. [49] 1998 40/1 ARDS with PFR <150 mm Hg and CXR infiltrates Usual care 5, 10, 15, and 20 ppm every 6 hours for 24 hours, then clinically adjusted Improvement in oxygenation to allow decrease in FiO2 Persistence of improvements in oxygenation
Troncy, et al. [50] 1998 30/1 Lung injury score ≥ 2.5 Usual care Initial titration (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 ppm every 10 minutes) and daily re-titration Free from MV within 30 days 30-day mortality and duration of MV
Lundin, et al. [51] 1999 268/43 CXR infiltrates and ARDS with PFR <165 mm Hg with MV for 18 to 96 hours Usual care 2, 10, or 40 ppm (lowest effective dose) Reversal of ALI 30- and 90-day survival, ICU and hospital LOSs, and organ failure
Gerlach, et al. [3] 2003 40/1 0.6, AECC ARDS, FiO2 ≥ PFR 150 mm Hg, ≤ PEEP ≥ 10 cm H2O, and PAOP ≤ 18 mm Hg. Duration of ventilation ≥ 48 hours. Usual care 10 ppm (with daily dose-response analysis) Dose-response relationship with PaO2 and iNO Duration of ventilation and ICU LOS
Park, et al. [52] 2003 23/1 AECC and duration of ARDS ≤ 2 days Usual care 5 ppm ± recruitment manoeuvres Oxygenation -
Taylor, et al. [53] 2004 385/46 ARDS with PFR <250. Excluded sepsis as cause of ALI and any non-pulmonary organ failure. Nitrogen 5 ppm in 192 patients Survival without need for MV during the first 28 days Oxygenation and PEEP and 28-day survival
  1. AECC, American-European Consensus Conference (definitions); ALI, acute lung injury; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; CXR, chest x-ray; FiO2, fraction of inspired oxygen; ICU, intensive care unit; iNO, inhaled nitric oxide; LOS, length of stay; MV, mechanical ventilation; PaO2, arterial partial pressure of oxygen; PAOP, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure; PAP, pulmonary artery pressure; PEEP, positive end-expiratory pressure; PFR, PaO2/FiO2 (arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen) ratio; ppm, parts per million.