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Table 2 Multivariable analyses of patient characteristics*

From: The epidemiology of intensive care unit-acquired hyponatraemia and hypernatraemia in medical-surgical intensive care units

  Acquire hyponatraemia Acquire hypernatraemia
Characteristic Odds ratio (95% CI) P Value Odds ratio (95% CI) P value
Age (for each 10 year increase) 0.93 (0.89 to 0.98) 0.004 NS NS
Baseline creatinine >100 μmol/L NS NS 1.47 (1.31 to 1.65) <0.001
Admitting diagnosis category    NS NS
   Medical 1.00    
   Neurological/trauma 1.33 (1.06 to 1.65) 0.012   
   Surgical 1.26 (1.04 to 1.52) 0.017   
APACHE II score (for each additional unit) 1.08 (1.06 to 1.09) <0.001 1.05 (1.04 to 1.05) <0.001
Mechanical ventilation NS NS 1.30 (1.20 to 1.42) <0.001
Day of ICU stay (for each additional log unit day) 1.95 (1.81 to 2.10) <0.001 2.06 (1.95 to 2.17) <0.001
Minimum Glasgow Coma Scale (for each additional unit) 1.06 (1.03 to 1.08) <0.001 NS NS
Glucose level (for each additional 1 mmol/L) 1.07 (1.06 to 1.09) <0.001 NS NS
Temperature     
35.0 to 37.3°C 1.00   1.00  
>37.3°C 1.36 (1.10 to 1.69) 0.005 1.30 (1.16 to 1.45) <0.001
<35.0°C 1.36 (1.08 to 1.70) 0.008 1.28 (1.14 to 1.44) <0.001
Serum potassium     
   3.5 to 5.0 mmol/L 1.00   1.00  
   >5.0 mmol/L 1.67 (1.42 to 1.97) <0.001 1.05 (0.93 to 1.19) 0.421
   <3.5 mmol/L 1.01 (0.90 to 1.14) 0.846 1.49 (1.40 to 1.59) <0.001
Level of care NS NS   
   Full care    1.00  
   Full care, but no CPR    1.23 (1.09 to 1.39) 0.001
   Comfort care    1.35 (1.07 to 1.70) 0.010
  1. *Time-independent (age, baseline creatinine, random glucose) and time-dependent (minimum Glasgow coma scale, glucose level, Acute Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, mechanical ventilation, day of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, temperature, serum potassium, level of care) characteristics included in multivariable models.
  2. †Patients with this factor served as the reference group
  3. ‡Length of ICU stay was highly skewed and time unit day was log transformed.
  4. CI = confidence interval, CPR = cardiopulmonary resuscitation, NS = not significant.