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Table 2 Vital signs in survivors (S) and non-survivors (NS) on arrival of the ambulance on the scene (T1) and just before or on arrival at the emergency department (T2)

From: The prognostic value of blood lactate levels relative to that of vital signs in the pre-hospital setting: a pilot study

  T1 T2
  NS S NS S
Heart rate (beats/minute, ± SD) 75 ± 51 89 ± 30 90 ± 40 90 ± 22
Systolic arterial pressure (mmHg, ± SD) 101 ± 66 * 126 ± 41 * 132 ± 43 136 ± 28
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg, ± SD) 86 ± 56 * 108 ± 35 * 113 ± 36 117 ± 23
SpO2 < 92% or no signal (n, %) 23 (72%) * 34 (37%) * 12 (43%) 22 (28%)
GCS (± SD) 8 ± 6 * 13 ± 4 * 9 ± 6 * 13 ± 4 *
  1. Continuous data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Binary data are presented as n (percentage non-survivors or survivors). Number of patients: T1 n = 124 (32 NS and 92 S), T2 n = 106 (28 NS and 88 S). * p < 0.05. SpO2 = peripheral oxygen saturation, GCS= Glasgow Coma Scale.