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Table 2 Effectiveness of noise reduction strategies in intensive care units

From: Clinical review: The impact of noise on patients' sleep and the effectiveness of noise reduction strategies in intensive care units

Author and year published Method Participants Setting Intervention Outcome
Zahr and Traversay, 1995 [50] Controlled clinical trial 30 premature infants NICU in USA Earmuffs Improve sleep by 39.0%
Wallace et al., 1999 [51] Controlled clinical trial; polysomnography 6 healthy adult subjects Sleep Lab in USA Earplugs Improve sleep by 33.7%
Richardson et al., 2007 [27] Controlled clinical trial; patient self-report 64 adult patients CCU in UK Earplugs + eye masks Improve sleep by 10%
Mann et al., 1986 [53] Controlled clinical trial; nurse observation 41 premature infants Newborn nursery in UK Behaviour modification Improve sleep by 13.8%
Kahn et al., 1998 [54] Noise monitoring All the ICU staff Medical ICU in USA Behaviour modification Decrease noise by 1.9 dBA
Walder et al., 2000 [55] Nurse observation for sleep; noise monitoring 17 adult ICU patients Surgical ICU in Switzerland Behaviour modification Decrease noise by 3 dBA
Olson et al., 2001 [56] Controlled clinical trial; nurse observation for sleep; noise monitoring 843 adult ICU patients Neurocritical care unit in USA Behaviour modification Improve sleep by 18.3%
Monsén and Edéll-Gustafsson, 2005 [57] Controlled clinical trial; noise monitoring; documentation of sleep disturbance factors 23 adult ICU patients Neurointensive care unit in Sweden Behaviour modification Decrease noise by 1.9 dBA
Gragert, 1990 [58] Controlled clinical trial; RCSQ; researcher Observation 40 old ICU patients Coronary care unit in USA Sound masking Improve sleep by 22.9%
Williamson, 1992 [59] Controlled clinical trial; RCSQ 60 CABG patients A public hospital in USA Sound masking (ocean sound) Improve sleep by 37.5%
Stanchina et al., 2005 [60] Polysomnography 4 healthy adult subjects Sleep lab in USA Sound masking (white noise) Improve sleep by 67.6%
Johnson, 2001 [61] Noise monitoring 65 premature infants NICU in USA Acoustic material Decrease noise by 3.3 dBA
Blomkvist et al., 2005 [48] Noise monitoring NA Coronary ICU Acoustic material Decrease noise by 4 dBA
  1. CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; CCU, critical care unit; ICU, intensive care unit; NA, not applicable; NICU, neonatal intensive care unit; RCSQ, Richard Campell sleep questionnaire.