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Table 4 Processed EEG and physiological variables, and RSS score 2 minutes before opiate boli

From: Entropy and bispectral index for assessment of sedation, analgesia and the effects of unpleasant stimuli in critically ill patients: an observational study

Variable Indication P
  0: left blank/missing 1: patient asks 2: agitation, nurse thinks of pain 3: agitation, objective signs of pain 4: anticipated pain (surgical) 5: anticipated pain (nursing) 6: to reduce sedatives 7: comment  
N 60 39 60 56 16 73 9 49  
Response entropy 73 (27 to 97) 94 (35 to 98 53 (30 to 96 36 (25 to 63 28 (19 to 34 32 (25 to 81 17 (11 to 25 81 (33 to 96 < 0.001
State entropy 61 (25 to 87) 81 (25 to 84) 40 (24 to 87) 30 (22 to 56) 24 (18 to 29) 28 (23 to 71) 15 (10 to 19) 65 (31 to 83) < 0.001
BIS-Index 66 (45 to 92) 77 (62 to 93) 62 (43 to 82) 51 (40 to 59) 49 (40 to 52) 53 (42 to 73) 46 (40 to 56) 54 (32 to 73) < 0.001
RSS score 4 (2 to 5) 2 (2 to 3) 3 (1 to 4) 3 (2 to 4) 5 (3 to 5) 4 (3 to 4) 4 (2 to 4) 4 (2 to 5) < 0.001
Heart rate (beats/minute) 92 (81 to 102) 90 (72 to 101) 96 (90 to 107) 100 (94 to 109) 97 (90 to 110) 93 (85 to 100) 95 (93 to 100) 86 (74 to 95) < 0.001
etCO2 (mmHg) 36 (33 to 55) 34 (32 to 46) 41 (34 to 50) 48 (36 to 55) 43 (41 to 49) 41 (35 to 48) 54 (47 to 56) 34 (27 to 45) < 0.001
FiO2 (%) 41 (38 to 59) 39 (38 to 53) 44 (39 to 53) 53 (41 to 57) 46 (45 to 52) 45 (39 to 53) 58 (51 to 60) 39 (34 to 48) < 0.001
Respiratory rate (breaths/minute) 14.0 (11.8 to 19.9) 12.8 (10.0 to 19.0) 16.8 (12.2 to 20.9) 19.8 (16.6 to 22.0) 16.7 (13.6 to 20.0) 16.5 (12.0 to 19.8) 18.3 (13.5 to 19.0) 13.6 (12.0 to 18.0) < 0.001
SpO2 (%) 96 (93 to 98) 96 (93 to 97) 95 (94 to 98) 95 (93 to 97) 98 (96 to 98) 96 (94 to 98) 96 (94 to 97) 95 (94 to 97) 0.053
SBP (mmHg) 111 (99 to 126) 119 (104 to 146) 113 (102 to 133) 101 (91 to 113) 94 (76 to 102) 109 (96 to 120) 65 (53 to 116) 105 (99 to 116) < 0.001
MBP (mmHg) 69 (61 to 78) 77 (71 to 83) 70 (66 to 81) 66 (62 to 73) 56 (48 to 68) 70 (62 to 75) 51 (44 to 79) 67 (62 to 74) < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 51 (42 to 59) 55 (48 to 59) 53 (47 to 59) 50 (45 to 54) 38 (28 to 44) 51 (43 to 58) 34 (34 to 43) 50 (47 to 55) < 0.001
  1. The opiate boli were given for various indications, according to the nurses' notes. Values are expressed as median (interquartile range). All P values were calculated using the Kruskal-Wallis test. BIS, bispectral index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; EEG, electroencephlogram; etCO2, end-tidal barbon dioxide; FiO 2, fractional inspired oxygen; MBP, mean blood pressure; RSS, Ramsay Sedation Scale; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SpO2, pulse oximetry.