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Table 8 Performance of various values of PetCO2 and duration of CPR for prediction of ROSC in patients with nonshockable initial rhythm in cardiac arrest

From: Partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide successful predicts cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the field: a prospective observational study

PetCO2 Cut-off (kPa [mmHg]) n Min-max (kPa [mmHg]) Mean ± SD (kPa [mmHg]) Sensitivity (%) Specificity (%) PPV (%) NPV (%) AUROC (95% CI)
Initial ≤1.3 (10) 97 0.0–1.3 (0.0–10) 0.66 ± 0.32 (5.1 ± 2.3) 100 40 57 100 0.61 (0.56–0.67)
  >1.3 (10) 336 1.4–8.4 (10.1–63.2) 4.17 ± 2.2 (30.8 ± 15.8)      
0–10 minute (average) ≤1.6 (12.1) 220 0.4–1.6 (3.4–12.1) 0.97 ± 0.34 (7.3 ± 2.2) 100 91 90 100 0.99 (0.98–0.99)
  >1.6 (12.1) 213 1.7–5.6 (12.2–42.1) 2.74 ± 0.87 (20.6 ± 6.7)      
10 minute ≤1.3 (11) 147 0.3–1.3 (3.6–11) 0.86 ± 0.32 (6.9 ± 2.1) 100 61 67 100 0.98 (0.97–0.99)
  >1.3 (11) 286 1.4–7.2 (11.1–54.2) 2.74 ± 1.14 (21.1 ± 7.9)      
11–15 minute (average) ≤1.7 (12.8) 240 0.4–1.7 (3.7–12.8) 0.99 ± 0.31 (7.3 ± 2.6) 100 99 99 100 1.00 (0.99–1.00)
  >1.7 (12.8) 193 1.9–5.1 (12.9–38.4) 3.15 ± 0.79 (24.1 ± 7.1)      
15 minute ≤1.8 (13.5) 236 0.3–1.8 (2.3–13.5) 1.11 ± 0.39 (7.7 ± 3.3) 100 98 97 100 0.99 (0.99–1.00)
  >1.8 (13.5) 197 1.9–6.1 (13.6–45.9) 3.58 ± 0.97 (27.1 ± 7.4)      
20 minute ≤1.9 (14.3) 242 0.3–1.9 (2.2–14.3) 0.91 ± 0.29 (7.3 ± 2.4) 100 100 100 100 1.00 (1.00–1.00)
  >1.9 (14.3) 191 2.1–7.8 (14.4–58.7) 4.38 ± 1.17 (33.1 ± 7.6)      
Max ≤2.3 (17.3) 210 0.8–2.3 (6.7–17.3) 1.59 ± 0.35 (13.2 ± 3.4) 100 87 86 100 1.00 (1.00–1.00)
  >2.3 (17.3) 223 2.4–10.7 (17.4–80.5) 5.0 ± 1.61 (37.6 ± 15.8)      
Final ≤1.6 (12.3) 239 0.2–1.6 (1.8–12.3) 0.97 ± 0.33 (7.2 ± 2.8) 100 99 98 100 1.00 (1.00–1.00)
  >1.6 (12.3) 194 1.0–6.6 (12.4–49.6) 3.59 ± 0.98 (27.1 ± 7.4)      
  1. 'Nonshockable' was defined as asystole or pulseless electrical activity. AUROC, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; CI, confidence interval; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; NPV, negative predictive value; PetCO2, partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide; PPV, positive predictive value; ROSC, restoration of spontaneous circulation; SD, standard deviation