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Table 1 Preoperative characteristics of and intraoperative interventions in patients

From: Urinary interleukin-18 does not predict acute kidney injury after adult cardiac surgery: a prospective observational cohort study

Characteristics AKI (n = 20) No AKI (n = 80) P value
Demographic data    
   Age, years 75.3 ± 4.1 68.1 ± 9.7 <0.001
   Female, number (percentage) 6 (30.0) 33 (41.0) 0.36
   Body mass index 29.7 ± 4.3 27.4 ± 4.5 0.045
Comorbidities    
   Preoperative serum creatinine, μmol/L 96.1 ± 31.6 89.4 ± 24.0 0.30
   Preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/minute, number (percentage) 8 (40.0) 19 (23.8) 0.14
   Left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction < 40%), number (percentage) 7 (35.0) 18 (22.5) 0.25
   Arterial hypertension, number (percentage) 20 (100.0) 64 (80.0) 0.029
   Hypercholesterolemia, number (percentage) 16 (80.0) 46 (57.5) 0.06
   Atrial fibrillation, number (percentage) 10 (50.0) 16 (20.0) 0.006
   Myocardial infarction (within 6 months preoperatively), number (percentage) 7 (35.0) 13 (16.3) 0.06
   Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, number (percentage) 6 (30.0) 8 (10.0) 0.021
   Peripheral vascular disease, number (percentage) 4 (20.0) 2 (2.5) 0.013
   Diabetes mellitus, number (percentage)a 8 (40.0) 20 (25.0) 0.18
Intervention    
   Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, number (percentage) 7 (35.0) 18 (22.5) 0.25
   Valvular surgery, number (percentage) 7 (35.0) 45 (56.3) 0.09
   Simultaneous coronary revascularisation and valve surgery, number (percentage) 6 (30.0) 11 (13.8) 0.08
   Duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (minutes) 147.0 ± 31.6 136.0 ± 41.0 0.20
   Fluid intake, 0–24 hours, mLb 5,500 ± 1,900 5,150 ± 1,250 0.44
   Urine output, 0–24 hours, mL 3,350 ± 1,050 3,990 ± 1,500 0.034
   Furosemide dose, 0–24 hours, mg 133.9 ± 168.7 30.9 ± 34.8 <0.001
Outcomes    
   Need for renal replacement therapy or died during hospital stay, number (percentage) 4 (20.0) 1 (1.3) 0.005
   Ventilation, days 2.4 ± 3.1 0.9 ± 0.8 0.010
   Length of stay in the intensive care unit, days 6.3 ± 7.1 2.3 ± 2.1 0.012
   Length of stay in hospital, days 16.2 ± 13.8 9.5 ± 4.7 0.026
  1. aDiabetes mellitus includes patients on antidiabetic medication and on insulin. bCrystalloids, colloids, and oral fluids from the commencement of cardiopulmonary bypass to 24 hours thereafter. AKI, acute kidney injury.