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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: A positive fluid balance is associated with a worse outcome in patients with acute renal failure

Characteristic All patients n = 3,147 No ARF n = 2,027 ARF n = 1,120 P value
Age, years 60.6 ± 17.4 59.3 ± 18.0 62.8 ± 16.1 <0.01
Male gender 1,920 (61.7) 1,250 (62.3) 670 (60.6) 0.34
SAPS II 36.5 ± 17.1 33.4 ± 15.6 42.1 ± 18.3 <0.01
SOFA score on admission 4 (2–8) 4 (1–6) 6 (4–9) <0.01
SOFA without renal score on admission 4 (1–6) 3 (1–6) 4 (2–7) <0.001
Vasoactive drugs 1,983 (63.0) 1,034 (51.2) 949 (84.7) <0.01
Mechanical ventilation 2,025 (64.3) 1,248 (61.8) 777 (69.4) <0.01
Serum creatinine, mg/dL 1.5 ± 1.5 1.0 ± 0.5 2.2 ± 2.2 <0.01
Comorbid diseases, number (percentage)     
   Cancer 415 (13.2) 289 (14.3) 126 (11.3) 0.02
   Hematologic cancer 69 (2.2) 39 (1.9) 30 (2.7) 0.17
   Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 340 (10.8) 196 (9.7) 144 (12.9) <0.01
   HIV infection 26 (0.9) 12 (0.6) 14 (1.3) 0.39
   Liver cirrhosis 121 (3.8) 73 (3.6) 48 (4.3) 0.34
   Heart failure 307 (9.8) 174 (8.6) 133 (11.9) <0.01
   Diabetes 226 (7.2) 121 (6.0) 105 (9.4) <0.001
Category of admission diagnosis, number (percentage)     
   Cardiovascular 949 (32.0) 573 (28.3) 376 (33.6) 0.44
   Respiratory 560 (18.9) 341 (18.0) 219 (20.3) 0.61
   Neurologic 485 (16.3) 359 (17.7) 126 (11.3) 0.62
   Digestive 333 (11.2) 206 (10.9) 127 (11.8) 0.67
   Trauma 181 (6.1) 142 (7.0) 39 (3.5) 0.70
   Monitoring 247 (8.3) 167 (8.2) 80 (7.1) 0.69
   Sepsis syndromes 777 (24.7) 423 (20.9) 354 (31.6) <0.01
   Others 392 (12.5) 239 (11.8) 153 (13.7) 0.66
ICU mortality, number (percentage) 583 (18.5%) 245 (12.1) 338 (30.2) <0.01
60-day mortality, number (percentage) 722 (23.3%) 327 (16.4) 395 (35.7) <0.01
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, number (percentage), or median (interquartile range). ARF, acute renal failure; ICU, intensive care unit; SAPS II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II; SOFA, sequential organ failure assessment.