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Table 2 Multivariate analysis of cause-specific hazard ratios for the acquisition of nosocomial pneumonia (model 1)

From: Risk factors for the development of nosocomial pneumonia and mortality on intensive care units: application of competing risks models

  Possible endpoints (competing risks)
Risk factor       
  Nosocomial pneumonia Discharge (dead or alive)
  CSHR 95% CI p Value CSHR 95% CI p Value
Baseline:
Age (continuous variable) 1.01 1.00 to 1.02 0.18 1.00 1.00 to 1.01 0.01
Female gender 0.75 0.53 to 1.07 0.12 1.10 0.99 to 1.22 0.07
SAPS II (continuous variable) 1.00 0.98 to 1.01 0.42 0.98 0.98 to 0.99 < 0.01
Intubation on admission 0.89 0.71 to 1.13 0.35 1.05 0.96 to 1.14 0.32
Pneumonia on admission 0.02 0.00 to 0.12 < 0.01 0.66 0.56 to 0.77 < 0.01
Urinary tract infection on admission 1.86 0.60 to 5.82 0.28 0.81 0.56 to 1.18 0.28
Other infections on admission 1.08 0.59 to 1.98 0.79 0.72 0.59 to 0.89 < 0.01
Hospitalization before admission 0.73 0.50 to 1.05 0.09 0.91 0.81 to 1.02 0.10
Surgical patients 0.69 0.41 to 1.18 0.18 0.98 0.83 to 1.16 0.80
Elective surgery before admission 1.95 1.33 to 2.85 < 0.01 0.54 0.48 to 0.60 < 0.01
Emergency surgery before admission 1.59 1.10 to 2.28 0.01 1.08 0.95 to 1.23 0.25
Cardial/pulmonary underlying disease 1.32 0.86 to 2.04 0.20 0.84 0.73 to 0.97 0.02
Neurological underlying disease 1.25 0.78 to 2.00 0.36 0.94 0.81 to 1.09 0.41
Metabolic/renal underlying disease 0.76 0.35 to 1.65 0.48 0.80 0.65 to 0.99 0.04
Other underlying disease 1.49 0.83 to 2.66 0.18 1.00 0.81 to 1.24 1.00
Time-dependent:
Ventilation 5.90 2.47 to 14.09 < 0.01 0.53 0.45 to 0.62 < 0.01
Chest drainage 1.00 0.68 to 1.46 0.99 0.75 0.65 to 0.86 < 0.01
Colostomy 4.29 0.36 to 50.64 0.25 0.69 0.28 to 1.72 0.42
Enterostomy 0.14 0.01 to 2.10 0.15 1.64 0.61 to 4.45 0.33
Jejunostomy 2.47 0.45 to 13.58 0.30 0.41 0.16 to 1.04 0.06
Nasogastric tube 3.04 1.25 to 7.37 0.01 0.89 0.76 to 1.03 0.12
Urinary catheter 1.53 0.49 to 4.81 0.46 0.76 0.65 to 0.90 < 0.01
  1. CSHR, cause-specific hazard ratio; SAPS, simplified acute physiology score.