Skip to main content

Table 2 Insulin usage, glucose control, and safety of an intensive insulin protocol stratified by study period

From: Intensive insulin therapy and mortality in critically ill patients

  Period I
(n = 2,366)
1 Mar 01 to 28 Feb 02
Period II
(n = 3,322)
1 Mar 02 to 30 Jun 03
Period III
(n = 4,786)
1 Jul 03 to 28 Feb 05
P valuea
Patients receiving insulin infusion, n (%) 206 (8.71) 817 (24.59) 2,027 (42.51) <0.01
Patients receiving subcutaneous insulin, n (%) 307 (14.21) 349 (13.93) 237 (8.65)c <0.01
Patients receiving any insulin, n (%) 513 (21.68) 1,166 (35.10)b 2,264 (47.48)c <0.01
Average daily dose of insulin, units/24 hours, mean ± SDd 72.4 (84.9) 55.7 (58.7) 47.5 (43.1) <0.01
Central lab 6 a.m. blood glucose n = 2,339 n = 3,278 n = 4,643  
   Mean ± SD 144.0 ± 38.1 138.7 ± 34.4 129.3 ± 30.3 <0.01
   Median (IQR) 138 (120–160) 134 (117–153) 125 (112–140)  
Average daily blood glucose, mean ± SD 146.6 ± 41.5 142.0 ± 37.4 132.6 ± 30.8 <0.01
Average daily blood glucose, median (IQR) 139 (121–161) 136 (120–156) 128 (115–143)  
Average point-of-care blood glucose n = 700 n = 1,407 n = 2,610  
   Mean ± SD 167.4 ± 46.7 148.0 ± 36.8 131.6 ± 31.2 <0.01
Hypoglycemia <40 mg/dL, n (%)e 24 (1.01) 53 (1.60) 103 (2.15)c <0.01
Hypoglycemia <65 mg/dL, n (%)e 115 (4.86) 351 (10.57) 810 (16.99) <0.01
High-concentration glucose replacement, n (%)f 86 (3.63) 244 (7.34) 462 (9.69) <0.01
Hyperglycemia >200 mg/dL, n (%) 330 (14.1) 367 (11.1) 339 (7.26) <0.01
  1. aAnalysis of variance or chi-square comparing the three study periods; period I is used as reference. bP <0.05 compared with period I (Wald test). cP <0.01 compared with period I (Wald test). dPatients receiving insulin infusion only. eNumber of patients with at least one episode of hypoglycemia; blood glucose values include both point-of-care and central laboratory measurements. fHigh-concentration glucose indicates administration of 50 mL of dextrose 50% (25 g). IQR, interquartile range; SD, standard deviation.
\