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Table 1 Baseline characteristics at intensive care unit admission stratified by study period

From: Intensive insulin therapy and mortality in critically ill patients

Clinical characteristic Period I
(n = 2,366)
1 Mar 01 to 28 Feb 02
Period II
(n = 3,322)
1 Mar 02 to 30 Jun 03
Period III
(n = 4,786)
1 Jul 03 to 28 Feb 05
Age in years, mean ± SD 51.1 ± 18.5 51.6 ± 19.1 51.6 ± 19.0
Male gender, n (%) 1,467 (62.0) 2,071 (62.4) 3,044 (63.9)
Race or ethnic group, n (%)a    
   Native American 70 (2.96) 62 (1.87) 105 (2.20)
   Asian 142 (6.00) 220 (6.63) 294 (6.17)
   African-American 224 (9.47) 291 (8.77) 369 (7.74)
   Caucasian 1,651 (69.78) 2,310 (69.60) 3,422 (71.77)
   Hispanic 91 (3.85) 156 (4.70) 228 (4.78)
   Unknown 188 (7.95) 283 (8.52) 350 (7.34)
History of diabetes, n (%)    
   Type I 64 (2.7) 68 (2.1) 77 (1.6)
   Type II 211 (8.92) 367 (11.1) 574 (12.0)
History of chronic disease, n (%)b 74 (3.2) 95 (2.9) 137 (2.9)
SAPS II, mean ± SDc 39.1 ± 18.1 39.3 ± 18.9 37.2 ± 18.4
APS III, mean ± SDd 53.1 ± 21.8 53.1 ± 23.3 50.5 ± 23.3
Trauma patients, n (%) 857 (36) 1,203 (36) 1,920 (40)
Injury Severity Score, mean ± SD 21.2 ± 10.9 20.8 ± 11.1 20.7 ± 10.6
Type of admission, n (%)    
   Surgical admission 1,440 (60.9) 2,003 (60.3) 3,084 (64.7)
   Medical admission 926 (39.1) 1,319 (39.7) 1,684 (35.3)
Admitting service, n (%) n = 2,366 n = 3,314 n = 4,745
   Surgical ICU 759 (32.1) 1,061 (32.0) 1,604 (33.8)
   Medical ICU 756 (31.9) 1,025 (30.9) 1,303 (27.5)
   Coronary ICU 170 (7.19) 270 (8.2) 350 (7.4)
   Neurosurgical ICU 607 (25.7) 871 (26.3) 1,335 (28.1)
   Burn ICU 74 (3.1) 87 (2.6) 153 (3.2)
Weight in kilograms, mean ± SD 83.0 ± 24.9 84.6 ± 26.0 84.5 ± 25.5
Admission glucose in mg/dL, mean ± SD 162.5 ± 88.9 161.3 ± 82.5 152.1 ± 69.1
Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 1,424 (60.2) 1,878 (56.5) 2,578 (54.1)
  1. aRace or ethnic group was assigned on the basis of hospital record. bChronic disease defined according to Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II criteria. cSAPS II can range from 0 to 162, with higher scores indicating a higher risk of death. dAPS is the acute physiology score of the APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) III score; it can range from 0 to 251, with higher scores indicating a higher risk of death. ICU, intensive care unit; SD, standard deviation.
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