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Table 4 Inter-rater reliability of the NRS, BPS, and Ramsay Scale

From: Comparison of different pain scoring systems in critically ill patients in a general ICU

Agreement between Exact agreement Agreement within 1 scale point Kappa (CI) Number
All patients     
   NRS 59% 94% 0.71 (0.61–0.81) 113
   BPS 80% 100% 0.67 (0.54–0.80) 57
   Ramsay Scale 91% 100% 0.66 (0.36–0.97) 44
Non-ventilated patients     
   NRS 66% 95% 0.63 (0.45–0.82) 56
Volume-controlled ventilated patients     
   NRS 56% 94% 0.64 (0.48–0.81) 36
   BPS 81% 100% 0.59 (0.36–0.82) 36
Pressure-support ventilated patients     
   NRS 48% 90% 0.80 (0.68–0.93) 21
   BPS 81% 100% 0.76 (0.62–0.90) 21
Cardiothoracic patients     
   NRS 60% 94% 0.65 (0.53–0.77) 83
Non-cardiothoracic patients     
   NRS 57% 93% 0.80 (0.65–0.93) 30
  1. BPS, Behavioral Pain Scale; CI, confidence interval; NRS, Numerical Rating Scale.