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Table 1 Summary of studies evaluating the timing of initiation of renal replacement therapy

From: Clinical review: Timing and dose of continuous renal replacement therapy in acute kidney injury

      BUN at initiation of RRT (mg/dl) Survival (%)
Study Year Mode of RRT Study design N Early Late Early Late
Parsons et al. [25] 1961 IHD Retrospective 33 120–150 >200 75 12
Fisher et al. [26] 1966 IHD Retrospective 162 ~150 >200 43 26
Kleinknecht et al. [27] 1972 IHD Retrospective 500 <93 >163 73 58
Conger [28] 1975 IHD RCT 18 <70 ~150 64 20
Gillum et al. [29] 1986 IHD RCT 34 <60 ~100 41 53
Gettings et al. [31] 1999 CRRT Retrospective 100 <60 >60 39 20
Bouman et al. [12] 2002 CRRT RCT 106 LV: 48 (40–66)a LV: 105 (62–116)a LV: 69 LV: 75
      HV: 46 (38–58)a   HV: 74  
Demirkiliç et al. [32] 2004 CRRT Retrospectiveb 61 NS NS 77 45
Elahi et al. [33] 2004 CRRT Retrospectiveb 64 67 ± 35c 75 ± 61c 78 57
Piccinni et al. [34] 2006 CRRT Retrospectived 80 NS NS 55 28
Liu et al. [35] 2006 IHD and CRRT Observational 243 ≤ 76 >76 65 59
  1. aMedian blood urea nitrogen (BUN; quartiles). bRRT started based on urine output <100 ml over 8 hours in early group and based on biochemical parameters in late group. cMean BUN ± standard deviation. dPatients with sepsis and oliguria; RRT started within 12 hours of ICU admission in early group and based on 'conventional indications'. CRRT, continuous renal replacement therapy; HV, high-volume hemofiltration; IHD, intermittent hemodialysis; LV, low-volume hemofiltration; NS, not specified; RCT, randomized controlled trial; RRT, renal replacement therapy.