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Table 1 Categories of medical devices, interference distances and type of incidents per signal

From: Interference by new-generation mobile phones on critical care medical equipment

Type of device or incident Number of devices Distancea (cm) Type of incident per signalb
  Tested Influenced   GPRS-1 GPRS-2 UMTS
Intensive care unit ventilator 9 7 1.5 [0.1–300] 6H, 1L 2H, 1S, 1L 1H, 2S, 1L
Critical care monitor 13 7 3 [0.1–500] 4S, 3L 2S, 4L  
Syringe pump 7 3 5 [0.1–50] 2H, 1S S S
Volumetric infusion pump 4 1 30 S S S
Intra-aortic balloon pump 2 1 0.1 L   
Haemofiltration/dialysis 5 1 15 H   
External pacemaker 4 1 3 H   
Defibrillator 3 1 0.1    L
12-lead EKG 1 1 150 S S S
Fluid warmer 2 1 6 S S  
Enteral feeding pump 2 1 30 H H  
Air humidifier 1 1 5 H   
EKG telemetry 1 0     
Forced-air warming unit 3 0     
Mobile suction unit 1 0     
Critical care bed 2 0     
Continuous-airflow mattress 1 0     
Type of incidentb       
   Hazardous    3.5 [0.1–300]    
   Significant    25 [0.1–500]    
   Light    0.1 [0.1–3]    
Total 61 26 (43%) 3 [0.1–500] 25 (41%) 15 (25%) 8 (13%)
  1. GPRS, General Packet Radio Service; UMTS, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System; EKG, electrocardiogram. aResults are shown as median [range]. bHazardous (H) is defined as a direct physical influence on patient by unintended change in equipment function; significant (S) is defined as an influence on monitoring with a significant level of attention needed, causing substantial distraction from patient care; light (L) is defined as an influence on monitoring without a significant level of attention needed.