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Table 2 Multivariate analysis of independent risk factors for acute respiratory distress syndrome

From: Red blood cell transfusions and the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome among the critically ill: a cohort study

Variable Adjusted odds ratioa,b 95% confidence limits P value
Age of patient: ≥ 65 years old (reference: < 65 years old) 0.687 0.495–0.954 0.025
Admitting diagnosis (reference: no)    
   Pneumonia 2.831 1.914–4.186 < 0.0001
   Sepsis/Systemic inflammatory response syndrome 0.856 0.552–1.327 0.4875
   Trauma 0.974 0.601–1.577 0.9133
ICU type    
   Surgical ICU (reference: medical ICU and combined) 1.543 1.055–2.259 0.0255
Severity of illness    
   SOFA score indicator (continuous variable) 1.078 1.034–1.124 0.0005
Process of care (reference: no)    
   H2 antagonists at baseline 1.332 0.953–1.862 0.0931
   Continuous sedation 4.237 3.000–5.983 < 0.0001
Nutritional status at baseline or ICU day 3–4 (reference: no)    
   Total parental nutrition 4.659 3.064–7.082 < 0.0001
   Enteral nutrition 3.153 2.189–4.540 < 0.0001
Laboratory data at baseline    
   Albumin ≤ 2.3 mg/dl (reference: no) 1.930 1.390–2.680 < 0.0001
   Hemoglobin level (continuous variable) 1.075 1.002–1.152 0.0435
Transfusion status    
   Any transfusion (yes/no) 2.797 1.899–4.120 < 0.0001
Transfusion exposure (reference: no transfusion)c    
   1–2 units transfused 2.191 1.409–3.407 0.0005
   > 2 units transfused 3.784 2.417–5.924 < 0.0001
  1. aAll odds ratios were adjusted for duration of observation and other covariates. bOther covariates not achieving the statistical significance entry criterion (p < 0.1) were gender; admitting diagnoses of neurological disorder, gastrointestinal disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; medical history of diabetes and malignancy; baseline APACHE II (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II) score; antibiotics use at baseline; total serum bilirubin of more than 2.0 mg/dl; and serum creatinine of more than 2.0 mg/dl. cEstimated from a separate model in which the categorical transfusion variables replace the transfusion dichotomous variable. ICU, intensive care unit; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment.