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Table 1 Univariate analysis of potential risk factors for ARDS

From: Red blood cell transfusions and the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome among the critically ill: a cohort study

Variable No ARDS (n = 4,484) ARDS (n = 246) P value Unadjusted odds ratio
Age in years, mean (SD) 60.3 (18.3) 56.3 (17.3) 0.0008 0.988
Men, number (percentage) 2,468 (55.1) 135 (54.9) 0.9543 0.993
Admitting diagnosisa, number (percentage)       
   Trauma 578 (12.9) 41 (16.7) 0.0873 1.352
   Neurological 760 (17.0) 25 (10.2) 0.0053 0.554
   Pneumonia 630 (14.1) 58 (23.6) < 0.0001 1.887
   Sepsis/Systemic inflammatory response syndrome 507 (11.3) 40 (16.3) 0.0180 1.523
   Post-operative 892 (19.9) 61 (24.8) 0.0619 1.328
   Other 1,741 (38.8) 64 (26.0) < 0.0001 0.554
ICU type, number (percentage)       
   Medical ICU 1,591 (35.5) 74 (30.1) 0.0842 0.782
   Surgical ICU 961 (21.4) 81 (32.9) < 0.0001 1.800
   Combined 1,932 (43.1) 91 (37.0) 0.0599 0.776
Nutrition at baseline or ICU day 3–4a, number (percentage)       
   Enteral nutrition 1,424 (31.8) 116 (47.2) < 0.0001 1.917
   Total parental nutrition 474 (10.6) 67 (27.2) < 0.0001 3.167
   No nutrition or none recorded 2,617 (58.4) 67 (27.4) < 0.0001 0.267
Process of care, number (percentage)       
   Antibiotics at baseline 907 (20.2) 27 (11.0) 0.0004 0.486
   H2 antagonist at baseline 519 (11.6) 7 (2.8) < 0.0001 0.224
   Continuous sedation 80 (1.8) 10 (4.1) 0.0108 2.335
   Antibiotics and H2 antagonist 1,307 (29.1) 44 (17.9) 0.0001 0.529
   Antibiotics and continuous sedation 319 (7.1) 31 (12.6) 0.0014 1.883
   H2 antagonist and continuous sedation 183 (4.1) 15 (6.1) 0.1242 1.526
   Antibiotics, H2 antagonist, and sedation 675 (15.1) 111 (45.1) < 0.0001 4.640
   No process of care 494 (11.0) 1 (0.4) < 0.0001 0.033
Severity of illness, mean (SD)       
   Baseline APACHE II score 19.4 (8.1) 23.5 (7.8) < 0.0001 1.061
   SOFA score indicator 6.6 (3.9) 9.0 (3.8) < 0.0001 1.154
Laboratory data at baseline       
   Serum creatinine > 2.0 mg/dl, number (percentage) 782 (17.6) 57 (23.2) 0.0250 1.417
   Albumin ≤ 2.3 g/dl, number (percentage) 1,086 (29.8) 115 (54.0) < 0.0001 2.763
   Hemoglobin in g/dl, mean (SD) 10.8 (2.5) 10.3 (2.4) 0.0008 0.914
Transfusion       
   Any transfusion, number (percentage) 1,892 (42.2) 164 (66.7) < 0.0001 2.737
   Units transfused, mean (SD) 1.8 (3.5) 3.8 (5.6) < 0.0001 1.088
  1. aThese categories are not mutually exclusive. APACHE II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; ICU, intensive care unit; SD, standard deviation; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment.