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Table 1 Homogeneity of the groups for pre- and intra-operative variables

From: Minimally invasive cardiopulmonary bypass: does it really change the outcome?

Variable Control group MICPB group P value
  n = 1,663 n = 1,663  
Age (years) 67.9 ± 9.5 67.9 ± 9.2 NS
Weight (kg) 73.5 ± 12 73.7 ± 14 NS
Height (cm) 167 ± 8.6 167 ± 9.8 NS
Ejection fraction 0.50 ± 0.11 0.50 ± 0.11 NS
Serum creatinine level (mg/dl) 1.31 ± 0.7 1.28 ± 0.8 NS
Serum bilirubin level (mg/dl) 0.63 ± 0.38 0.61 ± 0.36 NS
Hematocrit (percentage) 39.2 ± 4.6 39.2 ± 4.4 NS
Priming volume (ml) 874 ± 190 771 ± 134 0.001
CPB duration (minutes) 60.9 ± 25 59.8 ± 21 NS
Aortic cross-clamping time (minutes) 34.4 ± 13 34.6 ± 13 NS
Lowest hematocrit on CPB (percentage) 26.2 ± 3.9 27 ± 3.7 0.001
Lowest temperature on CPB (°C) 33 ± 1.6 32.9 ± 1.4 NS
Total heparin dose (IU) 26,733 ± 32,159 23,590 ± 30,421 0.004
Total protamine dose (mg) 221 ± 58 162 ± 58 0.001
Distal coronary anastomoses 3.26 ± 0.95 3.37 ± 0.98 NS
Gender male 1,311 (78%) 1,322 (79.5%) NS
Recent myocardial infarction 96 (5.8%) 107 (6.4%) NS
Unstable angina 240 (14.4%) 203 (12.2%) NS
Antiplatelet agents 350 (21%) 338 (20.3%) NS
Previous vascular surgery 93 (5.6%) 93 (5.6%) NS
Congestive heart failure 40 (2.4%) 38 (2.3%) NS
Preoperative IABP use 10 (0.6%) 11 (0.6%) NS
COPD 145 (8.7%) 151 (9.1%) NS
Cerebrovascular accident 104 (6.2%) 91 (5.5%) NS
Diabetes on medication 312 (18.7%) 344 (20.1%) NS
Chronic renal failure 40 (2.4%) 38 (2.3%) NS
Redo operation 45 (2.7%) 40 (2.4%) NS
Emergency procedure 13 (0.8%) 9 (0.5%) NS
  1. CPB, cardiopulmonary bypass; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; IABP, intra-aortic balloon pump; MICPB, minimally invasive cardiopulmonary bypass; NS, not significant.