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Table 1 Baseline sociodemographics and clinical characteristics

From: Differences in one-year health outcomes and resource utilization by definition of prolonged mechanical ventilation: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Short-term MV (n = 524) DRG 541/542 (n = 267) MV ≥ 21 days (n = 114)
Age 65 (49 to 75) 66 (45 to 75) 66 (47 to 74)
Age group (years)
   ≤ 34 57 (11%) 42 (16%) 12 (11%)
   35–54 124 (24%) 59 (22%) 33 (29%)
   55–64 79 (15%) 26 (10%) 10 (9%)
   65–74 121 (23%) 68 (25%) 32 (28%)
   75–84 110 (21%) 64 (24%) 25 (22%)
   ≥ 85 33 (6%) 8 (3%) 2 (2%)
Female 255 (48%) 110 (41%)* 45 (39%)
Racea
   Black 87 (16%) 35 (13%) 19 (17%)
   White 435 (83%) 231 (87%) 94 (82%)
   Other 2 (1%) 1 (1%) 1 (1%)
Marital status
   Married 257 (49%) 133 (51%) 66 (59%)
   Unmarried 259 (51%) 126 (49%) 45 (41%)
Education
   High school or less 256 (86%) 159 (73%)* 69 (72%)
   More than high school 140 (14%) 59 (27%) 27 (28%)
Income
   < $20,000 139 (48%) 86 (57%) 33 (48%)
   ≥ $20,000 149 (52%) 64 (43%) 36 (52%)
Residence before hospitalization
   Home 455 (87%) 251 (94%)* 106 (93%)
   Rehab facility 10 (2%) 3 (1%) 0 (0%)
   Nursing facility 55 (10%) 11 (4%) 7 (6%)
   Other 4 (1%) 2 (1%) 1 (1%)
Work status before hospitalization
   Employed 103 (21%) 63 (24%) 26 (24%)
   Student 10 (2%) 5 (2%) 1 (1%)
   Homemaker 50 (9%) 24 (9%) 10 (9%)
   Retired 224 (46%) 108 (40%) 44 (40%)
   Unemployed 68 (14%) 43 (16%) 17 (16%)
   Disabled 36 (7%) 8 (3%) 11 (10%)
   Charlson Index 2.4 (2.6) 1.8 (2.3)* 2.2 (2.7)
   Missing 1 (1%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
   ADLs 1.4 (2.1) 0.8 (1.7)* 1.0 (1.7)
   Missing 84 (17%) 41 (12%) 16 (14%)
IADLs 2.9 (2.9) 2.0 (2.8)* 2.2 (2.8)
   Missing 146 (28%) 56 (21%) 26 (23%)
SF-36 physical function 48 (39) 62 (38)* 56 (40)
   Missing 135 (26%) 56 (21%) 22 (19%)
Primary admission diagnosis
   Medical 350 (67%) 142 (53%)* 70 (61%)
   Respiratory 140 (40%) 54 (38%) 29 (42%)
   Cardiovascular 46 (13%) 14 (10%) 5 (7%)
   Neurologic 77 (22%) 50 (35%) 19 (27%)
   Other 87 (25%) 24 (17%) 17 (24%)
   Surgical 198 (19%) 66 (25%) 25 (22%)
   Trauma 44 (8%) 43 (16%) 9 (8%)
   Missing 32 (6%) 16 (6%) 10 (9%)
Admission source
   Direct admit 55 (11%) 28 (10%) 13 (11%)
   Emergency room 133 (25%) 78 (29%) 27 (24%)
   Floor 145 (28%) 55 (21%) 29 (25%)
   ICU 14 (3%) 3 (1%) 1 (1%)
   Operating room 98 (19%) 66 (25%) 25 (22%)
   Transfer 47 (9%) 21 (8%) 9 (8%)
   Missing 32 (6%) 16 (6%) 10 (9%)
   APACHE III score: day 1 70 (30) 64 (26)* 69 (26)
   Missing 25 (5%) 16 (6%) 10 (9%)
   APS: day 1 57 (27) 53 (24)* 57 (24)
   Missing 25 (5%) 16 (6%) 10 (9%)
  1. Values are expressed as n (%), mean (standard deviation), or median (interquartile range). Statistical tests were performed between short-term ventilation and either DRG 541/542 or ventilation ≥ 21 days groups. P values by χ2 test (for percentages), two-sided t-tests (for means), and Wilcoxon rank sum test (for medians). aComparisons are white versus non-white, home versus non-home, employed versus not employed, medical versus nonmedical diagnosis, and direct versus other admission. *P < 0.05 for comparison between short-term ventilation and DRG 541/542; P < 0.05 for comparison between short-term ventilation and ventilation ≥ 21 days. ADL, activity of daily living; APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; APS, Acute Physiology Score; DRG, diagnosis related group; IADL, instrumental activity of daily living; ICU, intensive care unit; MV, mechanical ventilation; SF-36, Short Form 36-item.