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Table 2 Outcome measures in the ultrasound group versus the landmark group of patients

From: Real-time ultrasound-guided catheterisation of the internal jugular vein: a prospective comparison with the landmark technique in critical care patients

Outcome measures Ultrasound group (n = 450) Landmark group (n = 450)
Access time (seconds) 17.1 ± 16.5 (11.5 to 41.4)a 44 ± 95.4 (33.2 to 77.5)
Success rate 450 (100%)a 425 (94.4%)
Carotid puncture 5 (1.1%)a 48 (10.6%)
Haematoma 2 (0.4%)a 38 (8.4%)
Haemothorax 0 (0%)a 8 (1.7%)
Pneumothorax 0 (0%)a 11 (2.4%)
Average number of attempts 1.1 ± 0.6 (1.1 to 1.9)a 2.6 ± 2.9 (1.5 to 6.3)
CVC-BSI 47 (10.4%)a 72 (16%)
  1. aComparison of the outcome measures between the ultrasound group and the landmark group of patients (p < 0.001). Access time and average number of attempts are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (95% confidence interval). Success rate, carotid puncture, haematoma, haemothorax, pneumothorax, and CVC-BSI are expressed as the absolute number of patients and percentage of their group. CVC-BSI, central venous catheter-associated blood stream infection.